Saturday, 30 January 2016

Stroud Green - Superior Flat Share


*A flat share you can call home
*Quiet, safe residential
*Secured entrance phone system
*Great tree lined location
*Bright and sunny
* Zone 2 - Victoria lines and Piccadilly lines

Many rental properties these days are very clinical, a house turned into faceless hotel rooms, without character or individuality. Let by agencies trying to fill flats with mass sharing anonymous strangers, looking for a place to hang their hat.

I think you deserve better than that, to ensure transparency, I've provided quality photographs that have all been verified by a third party and a concise, detailed description of the apartment. I do not represent an agency that uses beautiful pictures in their advertisement that do not represent the actual apartment offered,

Are you looking for a *home* rather than a temporary place to stay?
Searching for a friendly, flat share in a safe, quiet neighbourhood, with easy access to green open spaces / parks along with great local facilities and transport links?

I'm not overly concerned about prospective housemates' sexual orientation, ethnicity age or gender, I'm respectful and non-judgmental, treating all people equally. What is of paramount importance is to find the right ‘fit’ for both of us.

Ideally I'm looking for a like-minded person who interacts with others but also knows when to give each other space. Sharing with a responsible, respectful adult willing to contribute to the preservation of a light hearted friendly ambiance.

I would want whoever shares the apartment with me to feel completely at home and is familiar with shared accommodation etiquette. Ideally someone who finds it equally as important to create a comfortable living environment.  I think is important to compromise and know the responsibilities that a flat-share entails, for both of us. It would be great to hear from someone (long term preferred) who is genuinely interested in somewhere to call home not just a not a temporary stop-gap

You would be sharing with the least landlord- esque landlord you’ll ever encounter, a semi-retired company director who has lived and worked in a multitude of different countries. Over the years I've shared with people of all ages, genders and backgrounds. But I've always found common interests.
After spending many years in the US before returning to my home town, London. I spent quite some time in flat-shares, so I can empathize with both points of view and I realize how important it is to find a place that suits you. 

I'm respectful of personal space, easy to get along wit and happy to share coffee, a laugh a glass of wine or companionable silences. I am an easy going, kind, social introvert who loves a good conversation and good food, appreciates honesty and open communication.

Room Description:
A single occupancy, medium sized room that’s west facing, so bathed in afternoon sun (with British summer co-operation)

Overlooking the apartments grounds, it’s tranquil and has lots of natural light and is very quiet, comfortable and tastefully furnished; a sanctuary from the hectic outside world, with a unique feeling of personal space, without isolation

With double glazing, fitted carpet, newly decorated and all new furniture; large single bed with a relatively new (3 months) mattress, new sheets, pillows, duvet and bath towels supplied if required
Lots of storage space comprising - chest of six large drawers, fitted wardrobe with storage compartment and hanging space, two draw bedside table and ‘touch on-off lamp

Sky Wi-Fi high speed Internet connection, SKY TV HD + so that you can watch TV in your room or in the lounge. It also has a glass topped study desk with two storage drawers, an adjustable daylight lamp and two, 2 metre book shelves. An ideal retreat to surf the internet, answer emails or just relax in

Apartment:
Situated on Tollington Park a peaceful residential, tree lined street with a community feel, moments from the green open spaces of Finsbury Park, three minutes from your morning run. Minutes away from the tree lined Parkland Walk where you would forget you were in London and Hampstead Heath is a short bus ride away and you can't get any better than that in London.

Located in a quiet and friendly neighbourhood, it’s very bright with interesting green surroundings and has a pleasant view from any direction. There is a small garden with an array of flowers and a small lawn. This two-bedroom apartment is located on the top (3rd) floor of a small purpose built complex with secure entry / entry phone.

This is probably one of the nicest home-shares you will find on here. Great to come back to at the end of the day, very relaxed, fully furnished and is ideal for quiet ‘down time’

The apartment is kept clean and tidy and a cleaner comes weekly to help keep it that way Situated on Tollington Park a peaceful residential, tree lined street with a community feel, moments from the green open spaces of Finsbury Park, three minutes from your morning run. The tree lined Parkland Walk where you would forget you were in London and Hampstead Heath is a short bus ride away and you can't get any better than that in London.

Located in a quiet and friendly neighbourhood, this two-bedroom apartment is located on the top (3rd) floor of a small purpose built complex with secure entry / entry phone. It’s very bright with interesting green surroundings and has a pleasant view from any direction. There is a small garden with an array of flowers and a small lawn.

This is probably one of the nicest home-shares you will find on here. Great to come back to at the end of the day, very relaxed, fully furnished and is ideal for quiet ‘down time’

It comprises two bedrooms, a spacious shared lounge/dining room, which contains a 42” Sony HD smart TV with SKY HD+ Family package that includes Sky Movies and Sky Sports, Bose Solo 15 TV sound system, Wi-Fi high speed Internet (100 Mbps) DVD / Blu Ray player, two double leather couches, coffee table, dining table and four chairs.

A fully equipped gourmet kitchen, great for those Jamie Oliver moments, with its own window sill herb garden. Complete with all the modern utilities; washing machine, fridge freezer, microwave oven, fan-assisted oven, food processor et al (with both your personal fridge and food storage cupboard)

Shared bathroom /toilet with filtered, high pressure power-shower and glass shower screen over a full-sized bath

The area has controlled parking areas; inexpensive on-street parking is available with residents permit from local (Islington) council. A garage / off-street parking is available

Bills (are all included):
There are no agency fees payable. All bills are included (inc. Council Tax, TV Licence, etc.) with no hidden fees, which means you pay the monthly rent (£190 pw / 825 pcm) and nothing more. All I ask for is first and last month’s rent in advance.

I would also ask you to provide references from work and from your previous landlord A written agreement will be entered into as it provides both of us security and peace of mind. There is a one-time administration fee of £125 

Considering its location and how nice the apartment is it represents exceptional value for a very high-standard flat-share. This is a fantastic opportunity to move into a beautifully presented, characterful, comfortably superior apartment, sharing with one other person.

Transport:
The transport connections are unmatched for London, making it very accessible day or night.  The property is within short walking distance to Finsbury Park (Zone 2 - Victoria lines and Piccadilly lines) and Crouch Hill Overground stations as well as extensive bus services, most journeys to the West end, City or Central London take approx. 20 minutes, which is perfect for a professional who doesn't want a long commute.

Finsbury Park station is also a bus hub -W3, W7, 210, 4, 19, 29,106,153, 236, 254 and 259
Night buses – N19, N29, N253 and N279

I’m determined to find a compatible ‘fit’ for both of us so a profile on here or an e-mail with a little about yourself would be appreciated.


Area Info:
Choosing a place to live is one of the most important decisions you will have to make. It is important to choose not only the right area but also the right property within that area

Stroud Green an ideal location situated equidistant between Crouch End and Finsbury Park on a peaceful residential, tree lined street with a community feel, moments from the green open spaces of Finsbury Park, with its great transport links, this location is perfect for a professional who doesn't want a long commute.

Situated on Tollington Park a peaceful residential, tree lined street with a community feel, moments from the green open spaces of Finsbury Park, three minutes from your morning run. The tree lined Parkland Walk where you would forget you were in London and Hampstead Heath is a short bus ride away and you can't get any better than that in London. The area is very residential in parts, but has some great houses, with some very beautiful wide tree lined streets. Local gym’s (PureGym London Finsbury Park, Premier Fitness Club, and etc.) Yoga studio (The Factory Fitness and Dance Centre)

The area is well served by a host of local shops, super markets (Aldi, Sainsbury's, Tesco and Waitrose) coffee bars, pubs, take-away and restaurants; It’s also a stone's throw from Crouch Hill and Holloway Road.

Local Pubs; The Faltering Fullback, The Worlds End, The Park Tavern, The Old Dairy and The White Lion of Mortimer among others

Summer barbecues on boats on the lake, lemonade on the lawn in the park and great Parisian pâttiseries; just a few ways to enjoy a better lifestyle located in the heart of trendy Islington.

The area is well known for is its eclectic choice of cuisine, restaurants and coffee bars and there are some great places to eat to suit all ethnic tastes and budgets.















A guide to selecting new accommodation




Things to look for 

Choosing a place to live is one of the most important decisions you will have to make. Your home life has a huge effect on both your mood and on how you cope with the other trials of life. As a result, it is important to choose not only the right area but also the right property within that area. The London rental market moves at high speed and good properties don't often last long, this is because of huge demand for rooms and lack of supply. 

Data from a flat letting sites stated that there were 6 flat-hunters for every room listed in London. This coupled with the fact that many people flat hunting are working to a deadline can make finding the right place extremely stressful. With this in mind, taking a little time before you start your search to determine exactly what you're looking for can help save time and stress and mean you're not rushing round looking at places which aren't suitable meaning you don't feel as much pressure to take somewhere you're not sure about because you're running out of time.

Making a checklist of what you're looking for in advance of actually starting your search can help focus your ideas so you only end up looking for places you'd actually consider living in. Everybody's checklist will be slightly different but there are certain starting points which will apply to most people.
Note: a double room is relative to size, it doesn’t necessarily mean a double bed, be realistic a room with an en suite, a garden and a balcony are all very desirable, providing it’s within your budget. Check the ads within the area you wish to live in and get a feel for both what’s available and at what monthly cost. Be vigilant and use your common sense, if something seems too good to be true it usually is
Always have a written agreement that sets out what is expected of both you and the landlord and help avoid any misunderstandings.

1. Budget
The rental market is a tough proposition for many renters. UK renters now spend the highest proportion of their salary on rent in the whole of Europe and Londoners face rents at over double the UK average. Like most things in life you get what you pay for and after all this is a place you are going to live in

How much can you realistically afford to spend per month? Don’t forget the utility bills, are they included (average is approx £125 per person per month) There’s no point looking at places you can't afford because the chances are you'll see one you really like. Set yourself a concrete upper limit and stick to it.

2. Per week (pw) Vs Per calendar month (pcm)
Most landlords want to be paid rent monthly. However, rent in London is usually quoted as a price per week (pw) e.g. £200pw, and tenants are often surprised when they are informed that this does not equate to £800 per month. This is because there are not always 4 weeks in every month. Some months are 31 days long, others 30, 29 and even 28.

So to simplify things landlords charge rent per calendar month (pcm) which means that you pay the same amount every month regardless of the length of the month. This is calculated as follows: weekly rent x 52 weeks = rent per annum (pa, or per year) annual rent / 12 months = monthly rent
So the monthly rent for the above example of £200pw is: £200pw x 52 = £10,400pa £10,400 / 12 = £866 pcm

3. Utility bills
Check who pays for the water and council tax as they can have a marked effect on your budget. If you're renting a room in a shared house are heating and electricity bills included or are you expected to pay for them yourself? Also, is there a phone line installed? Is a broadband internet connection available?

4. Type of property
What kind of property are you looking for and what features do you need? For example, a washing machine will save time, money and hassle and make life much easier than going to the launderette. It's worth thinking about these things before you look at places. Does it have central heating (some don't, you'd be surprised how many), does it have a bath/shower/both? Make a list of the things you definitely need a property to have then add another list of things you'd like in an ideal world but aren't essential.

5. Location
Choosing a place to live is one of the most important decisions you will have to make. This applies both to the area you'd like to live in and to the location of the property within that area.

6. Transport/parking
What underground tube lines are local, are there convenient bus routes. How easy is it for you to get to where you need to be every day and which forms of transport are available to you? If you have a car, is there somewhere you can park it at or near the property.

7. Security
Again, this applies both to the area, would you feel safe walking home alone late at night for example, and to the property itself, how secure is the property? Other factors such as the cost of insuring the contents of your property are worth considering. Put important documents into archive boxes and label them clearly, you may need them when you get to your new home

8. Shopping
Is there a supermarket near enough to get to regularly and are there local convenience stores you can pop out to (and, if so, how late are they open)?

9. Noise
If the property is on a busy road, could you have your windows open in summer without having your television/stereo/witty conversation drowned out? Is your sleep likely to be disturbed by the noise from the pub/club/kebab shop/taxi rank next door?

10. Leisure
You won't always want to go into town for a pint or to see a film (especially if you live further out) so it's worth knowing if there are pubs and restaurants or a cinema or video shop in the area.

11. Outdoor space
Think if you need a garden or yard (or even a balcony). Having somewhere to hang washing outside when you're in a small flat can be a godsend. Also, it's nice to be able to sit outside without having to take stuff with you. Some converted houses and flats have communal gardens but often the garden comes with the ground floor flat so it's worth checking if you have access to the garden if there is one. Failing that, is there a park nearby?

12. Amenities and services
Some of these points you can consider before you start looking. This will save you both time and aggravation as you will be able to immediately ignore all the ads for properties that are unsuitable. 

Some of these points, however, you won't be able to know until you see the property but it's handy to have thought about them beforehand so you don't get out after a viewing and thing " I forgot to ask….". If you're looking with other friends or colleagues, then talk about what you're looking for as a group.

Sometimes one member of a group might be prepared to pay a little more for a bigger bedroom if you're happy in a smaller room to save money. Have a chat about these things and make a note of what you all want, it'll save time and hassle in the long term.
·        
      Do you have your own bed linen (sheets, pillow, and duvet?) If not is it available.
·         Do you have any large item? Is there space for them?
·         Do you need separate storage space? Is it available?

Finally, make sure you (and anybody else you're relying on) have your finances and suitable references sorted before you look at places. There's no point looking if you haven't got the money available.

Properties tend to go quickly and landlords won't want to wait around for you to get your act together.





Sunday, 17 January 2016

Paint Surface Scratches (Cause & Effect) Repair


Paint Surface Scratches (Cause & Effect) Repair

Before you start to polish you need to ascertain your client’s detailing goals, for his vehicle and how realistic they are.

Be cognizant that what your eyes ‘see’ is very different to theirs, you are probably a little OCD about the results you want to see. Your goal may be 85% + scratch free, which you will inspect with all manner of lighting and a trained eye.

For most owners they just want a clean shiny surface and a paint protection product that has a reasonable durability.

They have no idea that you remove scratches by replacing then with finer and finer scratches that can no longer be seen by the naked eye, removing scratches also entails removing paint and there is only a finite amount you can remove until the paints protection is compromised.

As a trained ethical professional you should discuss your clients detailing goals and educate them on how they can be accomplished. Once you have built trust in your abilities they will want you to look after their vehicle, repeat clients, that’s one of your most important business goals, isn’t it?
Once you have established trust they will want their friends and relatives to have you take care of their vehicles; win / win.
Types of Scratches
The less you physically touch the paint surface the less likely you are to cause scratches. Most surface scratches are caused by improper washing or drying, or by using unsuitable media. Avoiding paint scratches (as much as is possible) will lessen the need to use an abrasive polish along with the subsequent loss of clear coat

 Scratches in the clear coat or its sub-surface, that is to say any form of damage that is in the top layer of the paint surface, which includes; marring, swirl marks, scratches, stone chips, water spots and acid etching. The most common form of sub-surface damage is caused by road thrown stone chips, particularly on the front ends of cars. Surface scratches are invariably caused by grit being trapped between the paint surface and the applicator and being moved across the surface under pressure

Most scratches on a paint surface are V or U shaped, being caused by a small sharp object (fine sand or grit) and a slightly blunt object (belt buckle, button or zip) so an abrasive polish and pad are more readily able to polish the sides and smooth the points where the top of the scratch meets the surrounding paint's uppermost surface (paint levelling).

What makes a scratch visible is that it makes the paint surface two-dimensional and the light reflects from the microscopic peaks and valleys differently from the rest of the paint surface. When you abrade an area with a machine and foam pad these abrasions form a uniform pattern (the machine /foam pad applies an even and consistent pressure) and light reflects from its surface evenly without any two-dimensional reflectance giving the impression that it’s been ‘removed’

The perfect, mirror-like reflection of light from a surface, in which light from a single incoming direction is reflected into a single outgoing direction the best example of spatial reflection is seen when reflected from a flat level surface.

If the surface is perfectly flat, light will be reflected to produce a mirror image of the surface. But if there you have matte paint or are imperfections such as swirls, surface contaminants, orange peel, or oxidation (dull, opaque or unlevelled paint) light is refracted and the reflected light becomes distorted, diffuse reflection, which mutes the shine.

Technically we have different types of scratches because of the different ways they are introduced into the paint.

·         Surface marring –could be in either in the paint surface or wax /sealant, the shallow surface marks often caused by the incorrect use of a micro fibre towel, improper washing methodologies or the scratch pattern caused by a dual action polisher. Surface marring is actually made up of tiny scratches, which can easily be remedied by using a very light abrasive one-step polish

·         Halo-scratches - (swirl marks or spider webs) which, when the light reflects off the raised edges of the scratches, appear to be circular but in reality they are made up of numerous straight line random scratches which are caused by washing, drying and everyday wear and tear. Some are surface marring, whereas others can be deep into the clear coat.

·         Holograms - (also called buffer marks or buffer trails) which again are scratches but these scratches are micro-fine patterned scratches which are caused by a high speed polisher and an operator who doesn't know how to properly finish down their work. They take on a 3D effect and if the car is moving or you move around the car they seem to "flow" through the paint.

·         Pig-tailing - caused by dried compound residue lodged in the fibres of a wool pad

·      Etching - is a type of paint defect that can vary in depth and frequency, but creates a unique pattern dependant on how it is created. Etching is caused by chemical reaction (Acid Rail, IFO, Bird excrement, bombs, and the residual minerals found in water) on that paint’s surface that dissolves the surface, creating depressions.

·      Deep Scratches- a surface scratch that will `catch' your fingernail is approximately 0.04 Mil (1.0 µ) deep will usually require wet sanding

·      Haze - this is usually caused by using a pad / polish combination that is too abrasive for the paint surface to finish without leaving very fine scratch marks. Paint exhibits a general lack of gloss, this could also be caused by harsh detergents, solvents, or hardly perceivable hairline scratches or even a paint protection or polish that is not properly removed, all of which leave behind a dull surface that doesn’t reflect light.

·      Surface scouring – this is usually caused by abraded paint residue not the pad or the polish used

·         Swirl marks - Swirl marks (buffer trails) ribbon-like abrasions, the things that cause swirl marks are varied; an unnecessarily aggressive pad or abrasive, excessive speed or pressure used or too stiff a backing plate are just some of the many reasons for this type of surface defect. Even scratch-resistant and ceramic clear coats are susceptible to swirl marks if polished incorrectly.

·      Stone chips - and other minor damage are not only aesthetically displeasing they look unsightly and once they begin to accumulate, especially on dark coloured car. But worse still, because the stone chips, scratches and scuffs have penetrated the clear coat, your car will be prone to rust

Cause and Effect
Too ensure a near perfect paint surface blemishes need to be removed. However, there are some things to be cognizant of as it is possible to actually make things worse by using improper methodologies.

Proceed with this in mind; always choose the least intrusive product, it is preferable to polish 2-3 times to restore the paint film surface than to use an unnecessarily abrasive machine polish / foam pad combination. Before commencing polishing do a test panel on the car, once you have achieved the desired results with your selected polish / pad combination then proceed to polish the rest of the panels

·         Foam pad - using a foam pad that is too aggressive or is not suitable for the polish selected
·         Polish - select an abrasive polish to match the scratch you are trying to remove; by using the least abrasive combination of polish / pads to remove the defect, before moving up to a more abrasive combination. It makes no sense to use a very aggressive polish, that will remove most scratches but to the detriment of the clear coats thickness. Know your product and its capabilities before using it.
·         Dirty pads - will become more abrasive, as will pads that are simply sitting in a dirty or dusty environment. Even microscopic dirt and dust on a pad can lead to swirl marks.
·         Cross contamination- do not use the same pad to apply differing products as cross contamination; i.e. a pad that was used with a polishing compound may have traces left and if the same pad is use for polishing it will cause scratches. However, if you thoroughly clean pads right after use you shouldn’t have any problems with contamination from different grades of polishes or compounds.
·         Backing plate - a hard and inflexible backing plate will affect the performance of a foam pad; by making it slightly more aggressive (stiffness) and may cause swirl marks. The inflexible plastic on many backing plates has zero give and therefore will not adjust to the contoured body panels. The exception would be a plate bonded to a thick layer of dense cellular foam.
·         Speed - using too high a speed will not necessarily get the job done faster as there is a risk of instilling swirl marks or strikethrough, which will need to be corrected to remove
·         Pressure -  excessive pressure will make the pad / polish combination more aggressive, this has the effect of increasing kinetic energy (friction heat) which may result in a strikethrough, a friction paint burn or paint delamination from the substrate.  Increased surface friction will also cause swirl marks
·         Heat - excessive heat and a combination of excessive pressure (surface resistance) speed and an aggressive pad / polish combination will rapidly generate surface heat, this will soften the paint and may cause delamination from the substrate, surface hazing, strikethrough and greatly increase the chance of swirls.
·         Pad angle – ideally a pad should be operated flat to the surface; this provides the correct contact surface area along with sufficient surface lubrication from the polish oils. By turning a pad on an angle you reduce the surface are contact, increasing pressure and reduce the amount of surface lubrication available. Incorrect polish techniques will lead to swirl marks.
·         Insufficient product - without the polish lubrication oils, dry buffing will cause delamination from the substrate, surface hazing, strikethrough and greatly increase the chance of swirls.

Common causes of scratches
         Improper methodology / tools used when washing or drying a paint surface. This is the most common cause of surface scratching / marring) and accounts for as much as 75% + of surface marring
         A large proportion of all paintwork scratches are caused by automated car washes. Minute particles of hard materials, such as road dust and sand, become lodged in the rotating brushes and etch scratches into the paint surface. These “hair-line” scratches are particularly noticeable in darker paint shades.
         Using an unsuitable applicator or brush to clean the vehicle or remove snow etc.
         Using cheap micro fibre or terry cloth towels or some wash sponges will scratch the paint as these materials are hard and unforgiving, inflicting scratches without the need for grit particles
         Placing or dragging an object across the boot lid
         Jewellery (rings, bracelets, etc.) coming into contact with paint (i.e. rings abrading door handle recess)
         Using too much pressure with a car duster on a dusty / dirty surface
         Pulling a car-cover over a very dusty / dirty vehicle or dirt /grit on the inside of the cover
         Wiping a dry surface with a dry cloth
         Infrequent rinsing of brush or wash mitt when washing vehicle
         Using a dirty towel (dirt / grit trapped in fibres) and / or applicators that contain polyester (plastic) threads
         Using a towel or cloth that is unsuitable for paint film surfaces
         Not thoroughly rinsing road grime before drying
         Using a car wash concentrate that doesn’t suspend grit / dirt before it gets rinsed away
         Improper use of a water-blade (i.e. not rinsing blade surface after each pass)
         Wiping a spot of dirt / dust with your hands to maintain a ‘pristine’ look
         Using an unnecessarily abrasive automotive detailer’s clay and / or insufficient lubrication

Paint Surface scratches

         Visible damage-if the scratches show a black, grey or white colour it probably means that it's compromised the paint system through to the primer. They can usually be rectified by thoroughly cleaning the affected area, then apply a rust preventative primer before the application of both a colour and clear coat with a solvent or a slightly abrasive pre-wax cleaner or polish. Re-apply a protective polish and sealant after the repairs have been affected and the paint has had time to cure.

         Visible abrasions- dragging an object across the top of the trunk lid often cause this kind of surface damage, or careless use of the car keys or even fingernails around the door handles. They can usually be rectified with a slightly abrasive pre-wax cleaner or an abrasive polish.

         Surface scratch (or marring-) most probable cause is by automatic car wash or poor cleaning techniques. The marring looks like thousands of tiny single directional uniform scratches that cause light to refract instead of reflect, this kind of damage is usually confined to the clear coat, and can usually be rectified with a pre-wax cleaner or polish.

Deep Scratches
A surface scratch that will `catch' your fingernail is approximately 0.04 Mil (1.0 µ) deep will usually require wet sanding and the clear coat refinishing Removing a scratch requires removing the layer of paint that contains the defect; you need to level the paint to the lowest point of the scratch.  Removing more than 0.5 mil (12µ) of clear coat will cause premature paint film failure as UV protection percolates to the top of the clear coat. Check paint film thickness with a Paint Thickness Meter (PTG) before you attempt to remove

As you go over a deep scratch, the abrasives round off the edges of the high spots of the scratch. The result is a shallower scratch (when no full correction can be made) rounded edges don’t reflect light the same way a sharp edge will and is therefore less noticeable.

Unfortunately, a more and more common form of deep scratch is those inflicted with a sharp object i.e. a key. It may be necessary to carry out some localized wet sanding to facilitate full removal of any deep scratches, once again, paint thickness must be checked, and if the paint is too thin wet sanding should not be considered

Backlighting
Clear coated paints show minor swirls and scratches more readily than pigmented paint (single stage) due to an optical effect called backlighting. Light penetrates the clear coat and is reflected from pigmented paint (colour coat) which in turn reflects any imperfections in the surface of the clear coat, making them highly visible. As you drive towards the setting sun or oncoming headlights on a rainy night, every speck of dirt, smudge or smear on your windshield is suddenly very obvious. They are much more noticeable when sunlight or oncoming headlights back-light them.

Removing surface scratches with a machine-
Removing a scratch requires removing the layer of paint that contains the defect; you need to level the paint to the lowest point of the scratch. The dual action of a random orbital motion will require more applied pressure to work the compound into the scratch as opposed to the singular action motion of a rotary spinning with less applied pressure. Due partly to its indirect application of pressure; it removes more clear by putting an uneven pressure on the abrasives

a)      A dual action polisher’s orbital’s operating action (throw or offset) is not as efficient at transferring the energy required to create the kinetic friction required, because it puts an uneven pressure on the abrasives. It spins on a double axis, resulting in a pretty much "random" motion of a single point on the pad. This simulates the "random" motion of hand application of polishes.

The downside of this is that you cannot abrade the clear coat either to remove scratches. The PC pretty much just smoothes over the tops of the scratches, not really sanding away any measurable clear coat. To remove scratches, you have to make multiple applications to see a visible improvement. So for these reasons a random orbital polisher removes more paint than a rotary circular polisher to remove the same surface defect

b)      With a high-speed rotary polisher - you will be removing a certain amount of clear coat and actually levelling the surface. This is good because you truly remove the scratches, not just making them less refractive to light, as the PC does. The problem is that you only have about 1.5 or 2 mil (50 µ) of clear coat to work with.

A rotary polisher requires less pressure and its circular motion is a more directly applied force is very efficient and will remove more paint for each polishing step, which is usually 2-3 to remove surface defects. Its rotational action is able to focus kinetic friction on the high spots the paint more efficiently.

c)       Using a moderate to light polish; and utilizing a rotary polisher will remove approximately 0.000025 - inches (0.635 Microns) from the paint surface (they are many variables such as polish/compound and speed / pressure used that may affect the paint removed) You seriously have to make a judgment call about whether any defect is so severe that you cannot live with it and therefore it is worth risking clear coat failure to remove it with the rotary

d)      Block or wet sanding (finishing paper and a sanding block) is the most efficient process for paint scratch / defect removal. A polish or compound applied by the sanding block with constant pressure applied to maintain a flat even surface contact. Because of its linear process you abrade the paint surface until the scratch or defects are removed. 

Note
1.      It is preferable to polish 2-3 times to restore the paint film surface than to use an unnecessarily abrasive polish / foam combination
2.      Wool pads are not recommended for random orbital machines (Porter Cable 7424, etc.) as wool pads nap / fibres works more efficiently with a centrifugal motion Foam cutting pads tend to be much’ stiffer’ than wool fibres and thus will transfer the movement of the machine to the paint surface more efficiently than a comparable wool pad on an orbital polisher
3.      Natural wool is most aggressive - 50/50 wool/acrylic blends intermediate - lamb’s wool the least aggressive
4.      Always use the least aggressive product first, and then evaluates the surface, then only if necessary `step-up' to a more abrasive product and / or pad.

Levelling paint
When a detailer uses the term "levelling paint" it really means that they are going to be abrading the surrounding paint area that that contains the defect (scratch, swirls, surface marring, etching, pitting, etc.) So they are not ‘removing the imperfection’ just making the surrounding edges of the scratch flat. It is possible to remove a scratch by using a high-speed rotary and abrading the clear coat to a lower level then the base of the scratch, which will remove clear coat, just be aware of how much clear coat you remove, as you don’t want to compromise the paint systems protection.

Removing more than 0.3 mil (8µ) of clear coat will cause premature paint film failure as UV protection percolates to the top of the clear coat, there is UV protection all the way through the paint, but the majority of it rises to the top with the thinner solvents and particles. As a point of reference a sheet of copy paper is 3.5Mil (89µ) a surface scratch that will `catch' your fingernail is approximately 0.004 Mil (0.01µ) deep will usually require wet sanding and refinishing.

Modern clear coat paints are formulated from polyurethane, applied as a microscopically thin ‘elastic’ film, 1.5 – 2.0 Mils, too much friction heat will cause it to expand, driving the scratches deeper into the paint surface. Always be aware of paint surface temperatures (localized paint temperature should be limited to 110.oF.

 In accordance with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) study a temperature of 115.oF< will cause the paint to soften), and thickness, i.e. how much of the surface are you removing (See also Paint Thickness Gauge)

Light Surface Marring
The light surface marring that result from wiping down with a towel or the scratch pattern caused by a dual action polisher Surface marring is actually made up of tiny scratches, which can easily be remedied by using a very light abrasive one-step polish (Menzerna PO 203 S - Power Finish) and a protective wax and/or polymer sealant. This way you’ll maintain the original paint’s integrity for decades, with allowance only for environmental erosion.

Methodology
1.      Wash the paint surface
2.      Bonded contaminants on the cars paintwork should be removed using a detailer’s clay bar to leave a smooth surface ready for machine compound or polish.

3.      Throughout all stages of the polishing process the cars trim adjacent to the area being worked on should be carefully protected using painters tape to mask it to avoid damage. Protect sunroof seal, headlight covers, lighting rubber seals, windscreen surround, pant edges, vehicle emblems and model identification numbers, etc.

4.      Whenever you’re removing painter’s tape from automotive paint, always pull back on the tape at an angle as a safety precaution.
5.      Start the polishing process with a diagnosis of the paint finish and then proceed with the least aggressive polish / pad combination on a ‘test section’ panel, once you have established a suitable polish/pad combination proceed to polish / refine the paint surface

6.      It may be necessary to carry out some localized wet sanding to facilitate full removal of any deep scratches, once again, paint thickness will be checked, and if the paint is too thin wet sanding should not be considered.

7.      Finally use a polish to remove any surface imperfection and then a fine polish / pad to burnish the paint surface

8.      Carry out a wipe down process to ensure all oils and surface defects have been removed. 
9.      Re-wash to remove any polishing dust and / or debris

10.  The final step could be to use a glaze, pre-wax cleaner or go right to protecting your paint with a sealant and/or wax.

I would like to think that these articles become an asset to anyone who is new to detailing and to professionals alike, as well as industry experts who seek to advance their knowledge.
I hope the above article was informative. By having some understanding of the ‘What’ and ‘Why’ as well as the ‘How’ along with a little science to help you understand how the chemicals we use react, you can achieve the results you desire.
I would appreciate it if you would share this article as it helps other detailers further their knowledge.
Questions and/ or constructive comments are always appreciated.
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