Thursday, 3 September 2015

Paint Scratch and Chip Repair


Paint

Auto Paint Color Library - http://www.autocolorlibrary.com/
Automotivetouchup.com
http://www.touchuppaintonline.com/

Not expensive to fix but impossible to ignore ; stone chips and other minor damage are not only aesthetically displeasing they look unsightly and once they begin to accumulate, especially on dark coloured car. But worse still, because the stone chips, scratches and scuffs have penetrated the clear coat, you car will be prone to rust.

Paint ages and fades due to ultra violet radiation exposure, which causes photo degradation (fading). This happens to both the colour and clear but some colour change more than others; matching paint colours is an art.  Combine the base colour coat with flakes and tints then add a few costs of clear, some tinted and some not.

3M Finesse-It Hand Sanding Pad.

This 3M product is a small 1 ½-inch (36.5mm) hand held sanding pad and is used with our 3M micron abrasive discs typically to remove micro imperfections on the repaired dent, or can be used to gain a "read" of the dent by flatting the top of the dent, this usually shows any highs or lows left over.

Repairing Paint Chips
It is important to properly set customer expectations; most people will wrongly assume that a paint touch-up repair will make the paint perfect.   It won't.  You must explain that paint chip touch-up does not remove the chip; it simply makes it the same colour as the vehicle.   You must make it very clear that your paint touch-up service is a quick and inexpensive alternative to going to a body shop to have a fender, hood or door repainted.

Why repair paint chips and scratches; to improve the vehicles appearance, to prepare vehicle for lease return, increase retail value and to protect the vehicle from further (corrosion) damage. Chips and scratches aren't just aesthetically unpleasing, the exposed metal underneath may be prone to rusting or additional chipping. Fixing these spots with touch-up paint is an easy step in protecting your investment

If your repair paint is a good match you can slowly add layers till it's slightly higher than the surface of the original surface. Then you can use fine sandpaper to blend it and polish the area. Of course test on a hidden or low spot on the vehicle to be sure the repair paint and the original paint will sand and polish well. If either paint doesn’t take to buffing, then the best you'll be able to do is fill the spot with as close a match as possible and then leave well enough alone.

It’s a good idea to have a bottle of touch-up paint available so that you can immediately touch up any scratches before the corrosion process begins. Do not try to paint over rust; always treat it first by sanding or by applying rust inhibitor paint. Use rust converter as the primer coat if the scratch (chip) is down to bare metal.

       Methodology
  1. Apply isopropyl alcohol (ISP) to a Q-tip and dab on the rock chip or scratch a few times.
  2. Take a clean towel and dry the paint chip.
  3. With a utility knife cut the paint around the edge of the chip, the edge of the paint chip indentation will be slightly higher than the surrounding area and/or  the edge of the chipped area may have separated from the metal surface or there could be some wax/dirt in the area or the paint may have oxidized on the edges (it is not absolutely necessary, but it does improve the results and will avoid leaving a dark outline)
  4. Angle your blade toward the centre of the chip and press down gently. Work slowly and carefully, removing a small piece at a time, it’s not necessary to remove a lot of material.  Sand the area with a Wurth spot sanding pen, and then clean the area with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and then allow it to dry. 
  5. With painters masking tape cover the area surrounding the rust spot
  6. Use Nikkens ™3000 grit finishing paper and a Unigrit Sanding Block to remove any rust
  7. Or a Proxxon Mill/Drill Unit Micromot 50/E – Handheld_Tools
  8. Use an AutoSharp paint pen colour matched to your vehicle. The pen itself is very easy to use. You simply shake it, depress the felt tip a few times to start the paint flow, and then begin to "colour" paint into the damaged areas, much like you would highlight a section of text in a book.
  9. Do not to try to fix the chip in one application, apply a small amount of paint and ensure that you cover a small area surrounding the ‘chip’, allow to dry, repeat over a couple of days. Once the painted area is slightly higher than paint surface, allow to dry.
  10. Once completely dry, using  a Nikkens™ 3000 grit finishing paper and a Unigrit Sanding Block (previously soaked for 4 hours or overnight) to ‘feather’ (see note ) and level touch-up paint with the surrounding paint surface
  11. Use Woolite® or a car shampoo on the chip repair for lubrication.
  12. Wet-sand the raised paint dot by using blue masking tape and a centre punch; with a 1/8-1/4 -inch hole punched into it centered over the blemish and then use Wurth Spot Sanding Pen or 1500/2500 grit sandpaper on the end of a new pencil eraser to bring the paint thickness down to the surrounding level.
  13. Use a very light pressure on the sanding block, lightly wiping the area often to check your progress
  14. Next, using a Nikkens™ 3000 grit finishing paper and a Unigrit Sanding Block, using the block in one direction only, feathering the edge out into the surrounding area. Wet-sand to bring the surface back to level with the surrounding area.
  15. Do not use a circular motion (it will produce swirls) or a back and forth motion and ensure the sanding block is always wet
  16. Keep the area well lubricated with water and shampoo; otherwise it will dull the paint.  Once the surface appears level, use a block to squeegee off the excess water / slush (3M™ Wetordry™ Rubber Squeegee, P/N 05517, 2 ¾-inch x 4 ¼-inch)  If the water you are using has a high mineral content, don't let it dry on the car, as it could leave spots which may bleed through the new paint.
  17. Dry the surface with a clean towel and inspect with your fingertips.
  18. If you can feel a high spot, repeat the sanding / feathering process.
  19. If done correctly, you will hardly notice the repair.
  20. A good car polish (Menzerna Intensive Polish or Menzerna Final Polish II ) will restore the paints lustre
  21. Finally apply wax/sealant protection   
Note - Paint blending is basically painting an area larger than the defect and then blending or feathering the clear to match the surrounding paint, then wet-sand to bring the surface back to level with the surrounding area.

Run Razor - This cleverly-designed tool will take care of any problem areas that crop up toward the end of the painting process.

Run Razor holds standard razor blades at a precise angle to shave down semi-hardened runs, sags or dust between colour and clear coats.  Just pass it gently over the surface, dialling down the blade position indicator in.001" increments until the imperfection is gone –Eastwoods 

Alternative products-

  1. Lanka Paint chip and scratch repair technologies, is both a chemical and mechanical process, once the touch up paint has dried, The Blob Eliminator® will re-soften the paint, and the light rubbing mechanically begins to "smooth" down the excess paint, with the touch up paint now appearing on the cloth
  2. Langka and Metallic Paint-the reason metallic looks different after using the product is the metallic flakes migrate to the upper level of the paint surface while setting up.  To counter this, use the blue sanding card on edge immediately after applying the touch up, like a razor. This will remove most of the touch up while the metallic flakes are still suspended evenly throughout the paint, smearing the excess across the local area. Let dry and use the Langka to wipe away the smear tail left across the original (OEM) paint. - http://www.langka.com
  3. A system called Sprayless Scratch Repair
  4. AutoSharp pen the pen itself is very easy to use. You simply shake it, depress the felt tip a few times to start the paint flow, and then begin to "colour" paint into the damaged areas, much like you would highlight a section of text in a book.
Note: The newly applied paint will appear darker; it will eventually lighten to match once it has been exposed to ultra violet radiation

  1. Dr. ColorChip™ Paint Chip Repair system – is a  proprietary three-step paint chip repair process is the easiest and most effective way to touch-up minor automotive paint chips and road rash. Effective paint chip repair keeps your car looking like new and protects it from rust and other long-term damage. Easier to use than traditional touch-up paint or paint pens, you'll get professional results and guaranteed an exact OEM match to your car's finish. http://drcolorchip.com/
  2. Touchup123- Use detailer’s clay on panel to be treated, Wipe on Final Touch Compound to prep surface, Wipe Colorfill on ENTIRE panel to cover all the blemishes, Wipe on Final Touch Compound to remove excess Colorfill, Wipe off haze of Final Touch Compound to leave a polished shiny finish, Touch up any leftover larger chips with a brush (can be built up and smoothed out later with Final Touch Compound if desired)
Metallic paints, silvers and gold’s, have to be applied with care to avoid problems with the "colour flop". Colour flop is the term given when metallic flakes in the chip reflect light giving you a lighter or darker appearance. This is a variable that cannot be controlled, for best results; shake the paint very well to get the metallic flakes evenly distributed before you apply

  1. Auto Touch-Up Paint - dedicates itself to touch up paint, aerosol spray paint, and auto or car paint backed by a strong exact colour match guarantee for your basecoat/clear coat original finish. They offer touch up paint packaged in aerosol spray paint cans and touch up bottles with a brush in cap applicator as well as auto paint packaged in pints and quarts cans. Auto Touch-Up Paint
They guarantee your touch up paint or spray paint to match the original factory finish on all vehicles. Orders are custom matched to your vehicle using your original factory paint code and the highest computer technologies available. Not only is their touch up painting the exact colour; the size of metallic and pearl colour is the same in your paint.
  1. Touch-Up Magic - TOTL
Application:
·         Thoroughly clean each chip or scratch with a silicone remover and shampoo.
·         Cover chip or scratch with touch-up paint.
·         Allow paint to dry to touch, but not hard. (Time varies with paints)
·         Dab-on Touch-Up Magic, wait 15-30 seconds.
·         Rub across blob with a soft cloth.
·         May also use plastic razor blade if necessary (included)
·         After repair has completely dried (24 hours), follow with your favourite swirl remover and wax.
  1. Quixx GSRS German Scratch Remover System
2.      Airbrush Tutorial (inc video) - http://www.airbrushtutor.com/airbrush-tutorials.php
3.       
Always be willing to learn; because the more you learn, the more you’ll realize what you don’t know. It is said that knowledge is power, with the caveat that it includes access to a reliable information sources. I would like to think that these articles become an asset to anyone who is new to detailing and to professional’s alike, as well as industry experts who seek to advance their knowledge.

I hope these articles are informative. They are based on the current status of technical development as well as my experience with the products.

By having some understanding of the ‘What’ and ‘Why’ as well as the ‘How’ along with a little science to help you understand how the chemicals we use react, you can achieve the results you desire.

I would appreciate it if you would share these articles as it helps other detailers further their knowledge.

As always if you have questions, I’ll do my best to answer; bear in mind the only stupid questions is the one that was unasked. Questions and/ or constructive comments are always appreciated

Copyright © 2002 - 2015 TOGWT® (Established 1980) all rights reserved



Wednesday, 2 September 2015

Oxidation and / or clear coat failure

Oxidation and / or clear coat failure
The Basics

All paints are made up of three ingredients: binder, pigment, and a carrier agent. Pigment, or tint, is self-explanatory-it's the colour you see. Binder is often referred to as resin, and it can be helpful to think of it like tree sap, that thick, sticky hydrocarbon liquid that hardens when exposed to air. And carrier agent refers to the solution (water or solvent) that the resin is suspended in. It keeps the binder in liquid form until it is applied, at which time it either evaporates or chemically bonds to the surface of the car.

In general, urethane and enamel refer to the chemistry of the hydrocarbon polymers that form the resin (binder) of the paint. And that chemistry affects the look and durability of the finish, how it is sprayed on the car. Most new cars are painted with a type of urethane, and most collision repair shops use urethane to repair damage.

OEM Finishes

Consistent quality and the most durable paint finish coatings available to consumers are produced at the OEM level. These coatings comply with the vehicle manufacturer’s specifications and quality controls and are applied in a controlled environment, using quality materials and highly specialized application equipment. Also, the prefabricated metal used for body panels will never be cleaner and in better condition than when it’s used to manufacture new products. The longer the original factory coating lasts, the higher its value to the owner.

Automotive Coating

[: any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition which after application to a substrate in a thin layer is converted to an opaque solid film]

Paint is a liquid, usually comprising 30 to 40% solids and 60 to 70% liquid. As it dries it becomes a solid and a gas (the solvent) that evaporates, leaving behind the solid. The three primary type of ingredients found in most paint type coatings are –
1.      Binder (film former)
2.      Carrier (solvent)
3.      Solutes (pigment).

The binder is the film-forming component of paint, it imparts properties such as gloss, durability, flexibility, and toughness.  Many binders are too thick to be applied and must be thinned. The thinner is also called the carrier, because it makes it possible to transfer the binder to the surface. The pigment provides the paint with colour. All paints consist of a solids portion, essentially comprised of the pigments and binder, and a liquid portion. After the liquid portion evaporates and a coating dries, it is the solids that remain on the surface. Some paints form by solvent evaporation only, but most rely on cross-linking processes

The resin system's binder holds all the other components together, while the film former creates a dense surface, which among other things, hold the ultra violet blockers in place. Paint usually comprise three different solvents-one is just a carrier, the second is the binder and the third is the tailing solvent, which flows out the materials" to create a smooth, glossy surface

The tailing solvent defines if a final surface is smooth or has orange peel. The curing bake temperature is the cause of paint density issues, the misnamed hard and soft paint
Surfactants are added to stabilize the paint so that it will not separate, settle or become too thick to use. They also keep pigments dispersed for maximum gloss and hiding; and they help “wet” the surface being painted so the paint won’t “crawl” when it is applied. Surfactants also provide compatibility between tinting colorants and bases so that the correct colour will be obtained.

Urethane paint was first created in the mid-1960s, utilizing the newly-developed plastics technology of that era, to be superior to enamel paint in terms of durability. It also has the advantage of being a surface that can be applied over enamel if the enamel-painted surface is prepared first. A urethane painted surfaces is minimally affected by ultraviolet rays, making the paint a good choice for outdoor surfaces.

It is widely used in the automotive industry because of its durability. Inexpensive urethane paint might contain less than 10% polyurethane. High-quality polyurethane paint has a higher percentage of the expensive polyurethane ingredient. A urethane-painted surface can be expected to contract and shrink over time.

Polyurethane (PUR and PU) is polymer composed of a chain of organic units joined by carbamate (urethane) links. Polyurethane polymers are formed by combining two bi- or higher functional monomers. One contains two or more Isocyanate functional groups and the other contains two or more hydroxyl groups.

Approximately 30% of OEM body panels are coated with a scratch resistant clear coat and 70% are coated with traditional clear coats. When scratch-resistant clear coat systems were developed, conventional polishes were unable to eliminate the sanding defect. Menzerna took the lead in designing an innovative new polishing system that was successful on scratch-resistant clear coats while achieving even higher levels of surface quality and gloss.

The highest quality, longest lasting surface coatings available to consumers are the finishes produced at the factory. Factory coatings are applied in a controlled environment, using quality materials and highly specialized application equipment. Also, the prefabricated metal will never be cleaner and in better condition than when it’s used to manufacture new products. The longer the original factory coating lasts, the higher its value to the asset and the owner.

Finish quality is the primary attraction for new customers, but durability is also important. For this reason, many manufacturers go to great lengths to prevent the conditions that cause new coatings to fail prematurely. This involves critical surface preparation, rust inhibitive pre-treatment, and state-of-the art base coat/clear coat paint systems. The integrity of the original application allows responsible owners to provide a significant increase in service life through proactive maintenance.

Among the inorganic pigments, TiO2TiO2 white is, by far, the most important one. The photo catalytic activity of TiO2leads to a rapid degradation of the organic binder matrix, so the surface of the TiO2 particles has to be covered by an inorganic coating to prevent the matrix from being photo oxidized. This is done by applying layers of SiO2and Al2O3


Clear Coat Failure

A chalk like appearance on the paint surface or small triangular marks (crow’s feet) or other similar marks on the paint surface - basically the chemical integrity of the paint has been degraded by ultra violet (UV-B) radiation, stress, environment fall out, acid rain and etc.

Oxidation is sometimes confused with clear coat failure; the clear coat finish can become ‘dull’ by using harsh (abrasive) or if a high alkaline car washing solution as used in ‘touch less’ car washing systems, or from industrial airborne pollutants compromising the clear coat allowing the suns heat to dry out and oxidize the paint

 Oxidation really amounts to a weakening of the resins that bind paint, which results in the micro-pores becoming exposed and a larger area of paint becomes oxidized. Once the paint has been breached in this manner, applying waxes and polishes temporarily wets the surface making it appear better. The oxidation residue can be removed with Swissvax Cleaner or Duragloss DG 501   

            Correction- usually entails a re-paint of the affected panel, although sometimes wet-sanding may remove it, if it’s not too deep

Removing more than 0.3 mil (7.5ยต) of clear coat will cause premature paint film failure as the ultra violet (UV) protection percolates to the top of the clear coat, there is ultra violet (UV) protection all the way through the paint, but the majority of it migrates to the top of the clear coat along with the thinner solvents and particles.

Therefore removing clear coat ultra violet protection is not a linear process; by removing a small percentage of the clear coat paint tends to remove a larger percentage of UV inhibitors. So once you remove too much clear coat you'll have no paint UV protection other than what you apply with a LSP

Oxidation is sometimes confused with clear coat failure; the clear coat finish can become ‘dull’ by using harsh (abrasive) or if a high alkaline car washing solution as used in ‘touch less’ car washing systems, or from industrial airborne pollutants compromising the clear coat allowing the suns heat to dry out and oxidize the paint

1. Ultra violet radiation is the prime cause of clear coat failure, infrared radiation (IR) represents part of the ultra violet solar spectrum (approximately 55%-60%). The remaining heat source comes from visible and ultra violet light Infrared radiation infrared radiation (IR) that transmits heat that will cause oxidation by drying out materials, like the paint (binder) resin system, the plasticizers in vinyl, moisture evaporation of leather and the elasticity of rubber causing these materials to dry out and become brittle and compromise their structural integrity
2. Ultra violet light; UV-B radiation is known to contribute to the chemical modification, photosensitize (fading) of exposed paint surfaces resulting in loss of gloss, colour change, chalking, flaking and along with infrared heat radiation infrared radiation (IR) eventually the destruction of the clear coat paint film.
First, the paint take on a cloudy appearance, then as time progresses, we observe small hairline marks start to appear; that's the clear breaking down.


 Oxidation

Oxidation is caused by environmental pollutants (acid rain, ozone, industrial pollutants, hydrocarbons, etc)t UV- B radiation is known to contribute to the chemical modification of exposed paint surfaces resulting in loss of gloss, colour change, chalking, flaking and eventually destruction of the paint film. Inclement weather or the use of harsh detergents in commercial car washes using strong detergents will leach out the oils in the paint and dull the paint film surface even faster
It starts as a chemical reaction that causes the paint film surface to overheat, dry out and oxidize leaving microscopic surface imperfections and micro pores in the paint film surface that are vulnerable to deterioration

                  Two stage paint system- (base, colour and clear coat) - a clear-coat finish does not oxidize in the true sense of the word (meaning that the pigments and resins mix together and the pigments are exposed to the sun's ultra-violet rays, which causes them to dry out or oxidize.
The clear coat is applied to protect against this but the finish will become ‘dull’ by using harsh (abrasive) or if acidic car washing solutions as used in ‘touch less’ car washing systems, or from industrial airborne pollutants compromising the clear coat allowing the suns heat to dry out (oxidize) the paint.
The clear coat layer is extremely thin (1.5 – 2.0 Mils) it is not a solid coating and is to some extent porous, the top most layer of clear coat paint contains ultra violet (UV) protection. Oxygen interacts with substances in the paint layer (i.e. mica flakes as in metallic paints) and trigger the oxidation reaction. It's just that the amount of oxidation taking place is minimal in comparison to single stage paint.
     Clear-coat dulling has the appearance of oxidation, i.e. paint surface has little or no gloss and may exhibit a slightly ‘grey’ colour but can usually be rectified without the need to re-paint.
This can be brought about by abrasive washing which simply dulls the paint; touch less carwash washing, which uses an acid that dulls the clear-coat and / or simply from exposure to industrial fallout and UVR, etc.

• Wash the paint surface and dry thoroughly
• Clean the paint with chemical paint cleaner (Autoglym Paint Renovator or Swissvax Cleaner) using an orange foam pad at speed #4, this may take 2-3 applications
• Apply a paint surface protection

      For highly oxidized paint try the following; this may help to eliminate some of the oxidation-
• Wash the paint surface and dry thoroughly
• Clean the paint with chemical paint cleaner (Autoglym Paint Renovator or Swissvax Cleaner) using an orange foam pad at speed #4, this may take 2-3 or more applications
• Once the oxidation has been removed use a decontamination system (C.Quartz IronX)
• Apply an oil rich product to stabilize the paints binder system (3M Imperial Hand Glaze) apply a thick coat and allow to dwell time for 12-24 hours before buffing, repeat as necessary until surface has an ‘oily’ sheen.
• Remove residue with 1:10 solution of isopropyl alcohol and distilled water
Finally apply a coating (Opti-Coat™) a pre-polymer that cross links and forms a semi-permanent continuous film on the surfaces it is applied to similar to a single component isocyanate that forms a clear coating finish.

          Single stage paint systems (base and colour coat) – without a clear coat to provide protection, primarily a hostile environment will attack the paint surface causing microscopic gaps and valleys (micro fissures) and it becomes compromised both chemically; by industrial fallout (IFO) acid rain, brake /rail dust and etc., and by ultra violet (UV) heat radiation, which causes it to dry out and/or fail, further causing the clear coat to expand and often separate from the base coat, allowing environmental pollutants to penetrate.

Acids enter the breach formed in the clear coat and attack the resin binder system, which accelerates the degrading of the paint film surface, eventually leading to oxidation and/or failure.

Oxidation can appear as a dull and somewhat hazy, or `chalky' appearance to the paint surface, a paint film surface that is adequately protected with wax or a sealant actually has a lower surface temperature than one that is not.

A dark coloured vehicle parked in the sun can attain a surface temperature in excess of 200° F With both types of paint system the application of a Carnauba wax provides a sacrificial and easily renewable barrier against airborne contaminants, which means the wax is compromised not the paint system

Single stage is easier to correct than most clear coats, as a general rule use a more aggressive pad before moving up the scale in an abrasive polish. Start with a Lake County (LC) Orange (light) cutting foam pad with Optimum Polish or Menzerna Intensive Polish (IP) you may also want to try an LC yellow cutting foam pad.

If you need a more abrasive polish; use a high speed rotary and try Optimum Hyper or Menzerna  Power Gloss with a LC White polishing foam pad, if  the results are not satisfactory then step up by to  going to a LC Orange (light) cutting foam and then if needed a LC Yellow cutting foam pad.

Always be willing to learn; because the more you learn, the more you’ll realize what you don’t know. It is said that knowledge is power, with the caveat that it includes access to a reliable information sources. 

I would like to think that these articles become an asset to anyone who is new to detailing and to professional’s alike, as well as industry experts who seek to advance their knowledge.
I hope these articles are informative. They are based on the current status of technical development as well as my experience with the products.

By having some understanding of the ‘What’ and ‘Why’ as well as the ‘How’ along with a little science to help you understand how the chemicals we use react, you can achieve the results you desire.
I would appreciate it if you would share these articles as it helps other detailers further their knowledge.
As always if you have questions, I’ll do my best to answer; bear in mind the only stupid questions is the one that was unasked. Questions and/ or constructive comments are always appreciated

Copyright © 2002 - 2015 TOGWT® (Established 1980) all rights reserved

Sunday, 30 August 2015

Why the so-called all-purpose cleaners (APC) DO NOT work.

  


Before deciding upon treatment, you should first access what ‘type’ of stain it is, before a stain can be removed the surface tension that bonds it must be released, then the stain encapsulated and held in suspension to be removed.

Use a suitable (dependent upon the type of stain) 20% stain remover with in a solution of and 80 percent distilled water, to remove stains from cloth seats. Spray a small amount of the solution onto the stain. Wait for a few minutes, and then scrub the stained area with a soft bristle brush or old toothbrush. Blot the area with a soft clean cloth

Diagnosis is the key, not guess work. With all cleaning products, always test a small, inconspicuous area first to ensure it won't discolour or stain the surface, and ensure that the pH of the product is suitable for the material. As can be seen stain removal requires some knowledge of basic chemistry.
Depending on the pH of the product you use you should return the surface to neutral (pH 7.0) before you apply any dressing or protective products. Always select a chemical / cleaner that are biodegradable, environmentally friendly and safe to use by observing any precautions recommended so that they won’t harm you, your vehicle or the environment

Read the product labels and manufacturers safety data sheets (MSDS) to obtain a basic idea of contents, pH levels etc.


Classifying stains:

a) Organic stains- these include proteins and fats, body oils, mould yeast, bacteria, bugs and carbohydrates. Organic soil is cleaned with an alkaline (pH 8+).Most of the stains found in the vehicle interior are of an organic nature and require an alkaline type cleaner. Some organic stains (i.e. milk, blood, vomit, urine) should be removed with an enzyme type cleaner and a disinfectant applied to the area

b) Non-Organic stains- mostly found on the exterior of the vehicle, hard water scale (calcium) lime deposits, Road tar, grease and oil film, and require an acid (pH 6 or less) type cleaner.

c) Petroleum soils - substances that do not contain water, nor are they miscible, these soil types include, motor oils, and crease and road tar, and require a petroleum-based solvent type cleaner.

Stain Types:

a) Water Soluble Stains- These stains can be dissolved in cool water or loosened with water based cleaner, coffee; soft drinks, cocoa and chocolate are good examples.

b) Oil soluble stains- These are stains that are comprised of oily or greasy substances, which include cooking, oil from fried foods and suntan oil.

c) Combination Stains- These stains contain both water based and oil-soluble properties. Cleaning these stains require treatment with a petroleum solvent followed by water based cleaning solution.

d) Unidentifiable Stains- Sometimes stains cannot be identified. Treat these stains like a combination stain. Clean with a petroleum solvent followed by water based cleaner.
As can be seen with the above lists an all-purpose cleaner will probably not clean stains effectively (Most are butyl based, which is a huge known carcinogen) With all cleaning products (especially solvents) always test a small inconspicuous area first to ensure it won't discolour, stain or etch the surface, and ensure that the pH of the product is suitable for the material.

Stain removal requires some knowledge of basic chemistry. Read the product labels and always select a chemical / cleaner that are biodegradable, environmentally friendly and safe to use by observing any precautions recommended so that they won’t harm you, your vehicle or the environment. (See also Vehicle Interior Detailing and Solvents)

All Purpose Cleaner (APC)

As you can see from the above list the so-called ‘all-purpose cleaner’ (APC) cannot remove all stains, usually a high pH (6.0+) it’s better to use a specific stain remover than to compromise. Always select a chemical / cleaner that are biodegradable, environmentally friendly and safe to use by observing any precautions recommended so that they won’t harm you, your vehicle or the environment

Many well-intentioned detailers use the so-called all-purpose cleaning (APC) chemical for detailing. Using a product like Simple Green or a degreaser to clean everything from wheels to carpets is both dangerous and harmful to the materials used for modern automobile materials.

A safer alternate is a Limonene (citrus-based) solvent, they are biodegradable, environmentally friendly and safe to use. There is no such thing as a one size fits all type chemical cleaner, regardless of what a car care product vendor would have you believe.

Most detailing chemicals are formulated to remove specific stains and a little knowledge of their pH and chemical content will help in their correct selection and use; the most common types of chemicals include surfactants, solvents, wetting agents, Saponifiers and Chelators

Before using a cleaning product a detailer needs to know the material they are working on, what they are trying to remove and wither the product chosen is compatible with the material and will not damage it.

Diagnosis is the key, not guess work. With all cleaning products, always test a small, inconspicuous area first to ensure it won't discolour or stain the surface, and ensure that the pH of the product is suitable for the material. As can be seen stain removal requires some knowledge of basic chemistry. Read the product labels and manufacturers safety data sheets (MSDS) to obtain a basic idea of contents, pH levels etc.

Always select a chemical / cleaner that are biodegradable, environmentally friendly and safe to use by observing any precautions recommended so that they won’t harm you, your vehicle or the environment

Choose carefully whose advice you listen to, and more importantly what advice you act upon. The misinformation and myths that are so prevalent in the detail industry is the reason that detailers need to do research on their own.

I would strongly suggest that you verify any information that I or anyone else shares with you.  Treat all marketing claims as being just biased marketing claims and if you're lucky they will be based on truth and the company will operate ethically.

Saturday, 29 August 2015

How to determine the least aggressive polishing method?


All abrasive polishes arefoam pad and applied pressure dependant’ as far as their paint correction abilities are concerned. Any abrasive / pad combination is reliant upon its most abrasive component.

 If we consider the Lake County (LC) White foam (50 PPI) polishing pad as the baseline; any polish used will derive help from the abrasive abilities of the foam. Then consider the LC Blue (70 PPI) finishing pad has no abrasive ability and will contribute nothing to the cutting capability of a polish.
What is derived from this is that a polishes abrasive ability can be ‘fine-tuned’ by using different combinations (abrasiveness) of polish and foam (the same thing is true of wool pads) and of course differing the amount of downward pressure (10-15 Lbs is the usual range) applied will also have an effect on the abrasives capability

Different pad / product combinations (least abrasive pad / polish first) This is why a ‘test’ spot is so important. 

a)      Base pad / product (least abrasive pad / product) if this combination does not provide the desired results, increase the aggressiveness of the technique or product selection.
b)      Step-up 1 - using the same pad with a more abrasive product
c)      Step-up II – use a less abrasive pad and the same product as used in step-up I
d)      Step-up III- using the same pad with a more abrasive product

As can been ascertained from the above the total abrasive ability of a polish / foam pad combination is subject to many variables, the polishes abrasive ability is just the starting point
Rupes Random Orbital Polishers

Factors that increase abrasion ability
·         Increased speed (Velocity)
·         Increased pressure (Compression)
·         Use smaller pad(Reduced surface Area)
·         Using a slower panel transition speed (Increased surface contact time) 
·         Reduce the working area

The key to the polishing process is to know how the paint will react with each pad / polish combination you consider using. You must know your product and what its capabilities are before using it. This is why a ‘test’ spot is so important. 

The factors that affect the outcome -speed, friction (kinetic energy) applied pressure, foam pad actual surface contact area, pad grit number (abrasive ability) amount of surface lubrication available, the surface area and heat conductivity of material

All pads have a performance cycle, meaning you will get the desired results only to a certain point on that curve. The point of declining performance is typically reached by polish / compound pad being overloaded with product; you should always be able to see the individual cells or texture of the pad, with proper, regular cleaning pad overload can be avoided.

Clean (or replace) you pads frequently: pads are easy to clean; the slotted pad face actually makes it easy to clean. Do not use the same pad to apply differing products as cross contamination will reduce the effectiveness or completely negate their purpose. A new or freshly cleaned pad must be used with each type of car care product.


Other articles from this series - TOGWT Detailing Wiki Articles – Polishing Index
.
1.      Base Coat Clear Coat (BC / CC) Paint System

2.      The Physics of Polishing

3.      Basics of abrasive polishing

4.      How to determine the least aggressive polishing method? -

5.       The Wipedown Process (prior to polishing)

6.      Paint (Solvent / Alcohol) Swelling

7.      Test Panel (polishes and pad selection)

8.       Hard and Soft Paint

9.      Menzerna Rage of Abrasive Polishes

10.  Abrasive Polishes and Pad Performance

11.  Clear Coat and UV Protection Removal

12.  PPG CeramiClear™ ®

13.  Removal of Oxidized Paint

14.  Backing Plates

15.  Foam Pad Selection and Use

16.  Wool Pads I

17.  Wool Pad Cleaning & Care

18.  Micro fibre Pads

19.  Polish and Compound’s

20.  Paint Surface Scratches (Cause & Effect) Repair - Factors that affect Shine / Gloss

21.  Paint Surface Problems and Corrections


22.   Rupes vs, Flex Wet-sanding (Colour sanding) 

Always be willing to learn; because the more you learn, the more you’ll realize what you don’t know. It is said that knowledge is power, with the caveat that it includes access to a reliable information sources. I would like to think that these articles become an asset to anyone who is new to detailing and to professional’s alike, as well as industry experts who seek to advance their knowledge.

I hope these articles are informative. They are based on the current status of technical development as well as my experience with the products.

By having some understanding of the ‘What’ and ‘Why’ as well as the ‘How’ along with a little science to help you understand how the chemicals we use react, you can achieve the results you desire.

I would appreciate it if you would share these articles as it helps other detailers further their knowledge.

As always if you have questions, I’ll do my best to answer; bear in mind the only stupid questions is the one that was unasked. Questions and/ or constructive comments are always appreciated


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