The information contained herein is believed to be true and accurate; however we make no guarantees concerning the veracity of any statement. The writer assumes no responsibility, expressed or implied, due to misuse or misinterpretation of the information or methods used, or for any vehicle damage or injury that may occur due to the suggestions and information offered.
Accuracy and Verifiability of Content
I strongly espouse the dissemination of accurate; unbiased information, verifiability of content and information quality while trying to maintain a neutral point of view and as far as possible without bias, This ensures that anything challenged or likely to be challenged, including all quotations, be attributed to a reliable source in the form of an inline citation, and that the source directly supports the material in question. By its very nature some article content is original research, which refers to material-such as facts, allegations, ideas, and stories not already verified or published, but I try to ensure that information quality and a neutral point of view is consistently maintained
I strive to present complete and accurate information. To be of real practical use, a subject like automotive detailing requires a great deal of research, and updating as new products or technologies becomes available, so the articles are updated on a regular basis as necessary from current research. From time to time there may be information that contains typographical errors, inaccuracies, or omissions (because I’m human). These are unintended and TOGWT™ reserves the right to correct any errors, inaccuracies or omissions and to change or update information at any time without prior notice.
Article Revisions / Updates
The advent of new materials like detailing clay, micro fibre, polymer coating, nano-particle technologies and new micro abrasives are examples of why it’s so important to monitor the industries new products, chemical technologies and ideas that are constantly being introduced, as are the techniques for applying them, hence all of the in-depth articles will be up-dated and revised on a regular basis.
Automotive coating technology is becoming more and more complex requiring educated and skilled technicians to work on them. As the materials used are constantly changing we must maintain our knowledge base and adopt our methodologies to keep up with emerging technologies
Article Revisions / Updates
To be of real practical use, a subject like automotive detailing requires a great deal of research, and updating as new products become available. The advent of materials like detailing clay, micro fibre technologies and finely milled micro diminishing abrasives, suitable for ceramic nanotechnology paints are examples of why it’s so important to monitor the industries new products, chemical technologies and ideas that are constantly being introduced, as are the techniques for applying them, hence all of the in-depth articles will be up-dated and revised on a regular basis
Detailing Health Risks
This is only a brief summary of some of the health hazards and risks to your Health & Safety while detailing
To remove scratches requires the removal of paint using a polish or compound. Dust generated by sanding and buffing is a major risk. The most common abrasive used is silica, which is much, much harder than aluminium oxide; however, many formulators are also using aluminium oxide. Most good quality compounds and polishes contain abrasives and are a combination of both silica and aluminium oxide.
a) Quartz sand (silica) Inhaling finely divided crystalline silica dust in very small quantities (OSHA allows 0.1 mg/m3) over time can lead to silicosis, bronchitis, or cancer, as the dust becomes lodged in the lungs and continuously irritates them, reducing lung capacities. (Silica does not dissolve over time.)
b) Aluminium oxide is used for its hardness and strength. It is widely used as a coarse or fine abrasive
c) Isocyanates used in clear coat paint are powerful irritants to the mucous membranes of the eyes and gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. Direct skin contact can also cause marked inflammation. Isocyanates can also sensitize workers, making them subject to severe asthma attacks if they are exposed again. Death from severe asthma in some sensitized subjects has been reported.
Respiratory Protection (N95): Materials such as aluminium oxide (Aluminium oxide is on EPA's TRI list if it is a fibrous form) or silicon carbide (Nuisance particulate-Accumulation in lungs) used in polishes and compounds, and powdered fillers (Crystalline silica poses a serious inhalation hazard because it can cause silicosis). They represent a hazard to your lungs and may cause respiratory distress. A NIOSH-approved half face respirator equipped with a combination filter cartridge should be worn while using them
2. Noise Levels
An expert on noise, K.D. Kryter (1996) in his text, Handbook of Hearing and the Effects of Noise, (New York Academic Press) defined noise as "acoustic signals which can negatively affect the physiological or psychological well-being of an individual."
Basically, noise is unwanted sound. It is a pollutant and a hazard to human health and hearing. In fact, it has been described as the most pervasive pollutant in America.
Makita high sped rotary polisher at 1500 rpm (speed 3) - 76 dB A
Porter Cable 7424XP Dual Action Polisher at speed 6 – 45 dB A
Ear Protection; the constant pitch of a polishing machine could affect your hearing so wearing ear plugs would be wise to protect you from hearing loss.
Safety hazards - always remember that you are using a power tool that must be given the respect it deserves. As with running any power tool, read the manual and understand how to safely operate it and what its limits are and the potential dangers that could result by using it. Never forget for a moment that given the right conditions, it could kick back and jump out of your hands. Always wear safety glasses and hearing protection. Also, polishing compounds often contain silicates that become airborne in the polishing process, inhaled they could represent real health concerns. Read the safety data sheets and follow safety directions. Personally, I almost always wear glasses, hearing protection, a quality dust filter or mask and a buffing apron when buffing
One of the problems encountered when working on older cars is asbestos. In the years before the dangers of asbestosis were understood, asbestos was a common material used in certain car components. It is therefore essential to have an understanding of what you are dealing with, before diving in and pulling your classic car apart.
Perhaps the most obvious and well known area to be careful with is brake dust, specifically the dust that falls out of your brake drum when checking the shoes for wear etc. Great care must be taken not to inhale the dust that can drop out when the brake drum is freed off.
4. The dangers of Auto paints
At one time, VOC's (volatile organic compounds) were required for paint and finishes to perform properly. Such paints could contain up to 10,000 chemicals, of which approximately 300 were toxins, and 150 were linked to kidney damage, liver damage, or cancer
Lead pigments have been used for many years in auto enamels and lacquers. Lead is a poisonous substance to animals. It damages the nervous system and causes brain disorders. Lead pigments were used in lead paint for white as well as yellow, orange, and red. Most uses have been discontinued due of the dangers of lead poisoning. However, lead chromate is still in industrial use.
For older cars, the refinish industry can only provide accurate colour matches to vehicles that currently have paint containing lead on them by using the same lead-based pigments. By the mid-1980s, a significant shift in lead end-use patterns had taken place. If you are using these products you should be careful when sanding-down old paints. Some older cars may also contain lead auto-body filler.
Aerosol Spray Paint - many of the paints sold in aerosol cans as touch-up paints contain lead. These are used by car owners to camouflage small areas of paint chip damage.
5. Lead in Gasoline (Petrol)
Tetraethyllead (TEL) a colourless, viscous liquid was once used extensively as a gasoline additive for its ability to increase the fuel's octane rating.TEL remains an ingredient of 100 octane aviation fuel (avgas) for propeller planes (not jet engines) and until recently in professional racing. NASCAR in 1998 switched to unleaded fuel after years of research and when blood tests of NASCAR teams revealed elevated levels of the metal. TEL usage was largely discontinued because of the toxicity of lead
Most organic solvents are flammable or highly flammable, depending on their volatility. Many organic solvents are recognized by NIOSH as carcinogens (e.g., benzene, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene), reproductive hazards (e.g., 2-ethoxyethanol, 2-methoxyethanol, methyl chloride), and neurotoxins (e.g., n-hexane, tetrachloroethylene, toluene).
There are three main types:
1. Oxygenated Solvents- alcohols, glycol ethers, ketones, esters, and glycol ether esters. Oxygenated solvents are synthesized from other chemicals to form the desired solvent. Those solvents are typically of a high purity with specifications ranging from 99.0% to 99.9% purity.
2. Hydrocarbon Solvents (Petroleum Distillates) - aliphatic (include methane, propane, and kerosene, they are flammable and may be explosively flammable).
3. Aromatic hydrocarbons- are the most toxic compounds found in petroleum products and include such substances as para-xylene, benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene, which are all volatile organic compounds (VOC)
Notes- when using solvents always use Nitrile medical gloves (usually the blue or purple ones) if you are going to be using them for any length of time
7. Acid Cleaners
Used as a wheel surface cleaner Ammonium hydrogen fluoride (NH4HF2) Or Ammonium bifluoride SiO2 (BF) is miss-classified as the safe alternative to hydrogen fluoride, once mixed with water it becomes hydrogen fluoride one of the most common, and dangerous, acid wheel cleaners used in automatic carwashes today.
Its effectiveness removing brake dust and difficult contaminants from wheels is undisputed, but most chemists say Ammonium bifluoride presents an unjustifiable and potentially lethal risk. (See article Detailing Chemicals Identification)
The first line of defence is the products MSDS, obtain one before you use any product, the second line of defence is to use the appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) as protection from potential health hazards. And the most important line of defence is to allow common sense to prevail and proceed with due caution
Material data sheets (MSDS)
Be aware of dangerous ingredients and request Materials Safety and Data Sheets (MSDS) from the manufacturer if there is any question.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is required under the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard. The MSDS is a detailed informational document prepared by the manufacturer or importer of a hazardous chemical.
It describes the physical and chemical properties of the product. MSDS’s contain useful information such as flash point, toxicity, procedures for spills and leaks, and storage guidelines.
Information included in a Material Safety Data Sheet aids in the selection of safe products, helps you understand the potential health and physical hazards of a chemical and describes how to respond effectively to exposure situations. Although there is an effort currently underway to standardize MSDS’s the quality of individual MSDS’s vary. A MSDS may be useful but it cannot substitute for prudent practices and comprehensive risk management.
An MSDS should be available for every chemical you use. Read these and follow the recommendations for safe use and disposal of the material. The target audience for information in a MSDS is the occupation worker who may be exposed to chemicals at work. However, much of the information is also relevant to consumers.
Read the manufacturers application instructions and then obtain and read the MSDS sheet to ascertain the chemicals used. Although it should be said that an MSDS is a document that contains details of the hazards associated with a particular chemical and provides information regarding its safe use. The MSDS is required to state the chemical's risks, safety and impact on the environment.
An MSDS is a fact sheet developed by manufacturers describing the chemical properties of a product. Material Safety Data Sheets include brand-specific information such as physical data (solid, liquid, colour, melting point, flash point, etc.), health effects, first aid, reactivity, storage, handling, disposal, personal protection and spill/leak procedures.
How to Read a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) http://www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/co/maho/gemare/gemare_012.cfm
Chemical Information (MSDS) A-Z- http://www.ehso.com/msds.php
Definitions of Terms Used in Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) - http://www.ehso.com/msdsdefs.php
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)
Each CAS registry number (often referred to as CAS #) is a unique numeric identifier that designates only one substance; it has no specific chemical significance, but is a link to a wealth of information about a specific chemical substance. Since CAS Registry Numbers are not dependent upon any system of chemical nomenclature, they can provide a reliable common link between the various nomenclatures terms used to describe substances. And serve as an international resource for chemical substance identifiers used by scientists, industry, and regulatory bodies
Contamination of surface waters arises from the rinseate discharging to storm drains, which in turn most commonly drain to rivers and lakes. Chief pollutants include phosphates; cleaning chemicals (degreasers, etc) oil and grease. This is almost exclusively an issue for home/driveway washing. You should never assume that aqueous solutions can be disposed of untreated via the storm drainage system. Pending regulations are in place (Clean Water Act and Ground Water Pollution) to limit the amount of contaminated water that is allowed to be discharged into storm water systems (i.e. street vehicle washing)
Always dispose of all non-biodegradable materials from your vehicle cleaning in a responsible manner. Waste run-off must be disposed of in accordance with federal, state and local environmental control regulations.
Disposal of Aqueous Solutions
One should never assume that aqueous solutions can be disposed of down the drain. Your local water treatment authority or publicly owned treatment works will have information on treatment and disposal of these cleaners. Adjustment of pH and dilution are usually required before disposal to a drain. Always comply with current water usage and disposal regulations / water usage restrictions.
A car care product may be biodegradable and environmentally safe but just remember the dirt, oil and road grease you are cleaning with it are not, once rinsed off the vehicle paint surface the resultant solution is no longer biodegradable and environmentally safe
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Protection from Potential Health Hazards
1. Warning: Always use ground fault protection interruption (GFPI) when using any electrical device around water
2. Eye Protection: I would strongly advise the wearing of safety glasses or visor when operating any machine polisher.
3. Ear Protection; the constant pitch of a polishing machine could affect your hearing so wearing ear plugs would be wise to protect you from hearing loss.
4. Hand Protection; Gloves- with the verity of chemicals a detailer uses on a daily basis wearing chemical-resistant gloves resist penetration and permeation, and will provide protection against dermatitis and chemical burns. Gloves can provide protection, but they must be chosen with care, the proper selection matched to the hazard is critical. Chemical-resistant gloves resist penetration and permeation, and cam protect against dermatitis, chemical burns and corrosion.
5. Respiratory Protection (N95): Materials such as aluminium oxide (Aluminium oxide is on EPA's TRI list if it is a fibrous form) or silicon carbide (Nuisance particulate-Accumulation in lungs) used in polishes and compounds, and powdered fillers (Crystalline silica poses a serious inhalation hazard because it can cause silicosis) and Isocyanate clear coat residue represent a hazard to your lungs and may cause respiratory distress. Use a NIOSH-approved half face respirator equipped with a combination filter cartridge should be worn while using them
6. Consult the current 3M Respiratory Selection Guide for additional information or call 1-800-243-4630 for 3M technical assistance.
7. Material Safety Data Sheets: Use a ring binder or other filing system to ensure the appropriate MSDS is always available to identify hazardous substances
8. Work Hygienic Practices: Rinse cloves under running water before removing them
9. Protect yourself, work safe. As in all things, allow common sense to prevail and proceed with due caution
GFCI and Extension Cord
Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter and Extension cord selection is based on two main principles. First, the cable should be able to carry the current load imposed on it without overheating. It should be able to do this in the most extreme conditions of temperature it will encounter during its working life.
Second, it should offer sufficiently sound earthing to (a) limit the voltage to which people are exposed to a safe level and (b) allow the fault current to trip the fuse or MCB in a short time. To meet these requirements requires consideration of the circuit load current (AMPS) a reasonable voltage drop, cable thickness (G) and length (feet) and the over-current protection device
Prime Wire & Cable Duplex GFCI -residual current device is also known as a ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) junction Box with 6-Ft. cord, Model# GF200806 Portable GFCI duplex receptacle detects power leaks and shuts off electricity in less than a second to prevent shock. Test and reset buttons Tough jobsite box with 6-ft. 12/3 SJTW power cord UL listed, meets OSHA standards.
Prime Wire & Cable 50-Ft extension 12/3 Neon Power Cord — Blue, Model# NS514830 Bright NEON extension cord stands out for easy identification. 12 Gauge, SJTW, 3 prong cord features super-flexible vinyl jacket with a cold temperature rating of -31°F. LIGHTED connector indicates when power is on. Cord is water and flame resistant and rated at 15 amps, 125V, 1875 watts, UL listed and meets OSHA standards – Northern Tool
Wire Resistance and Voltage Drop Calculator - http://www.stealth316.com/2-wire-resistance.htm
1. Wikipedia® Encyclopaedia
2. Automotive Detailing Inside & Out; a Knowledge Base for the Perfectionist", by Jon Miller
3. TOGWT™ Series of Detailing Articles, by Jon Miller
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