Saturday, 31 October 2015

Paint Film Surface Problems (in alphabetical order) Part I A-M

Some problems exist in the paint, as well as on the surface. As you become more experienced with paint problems, you will be able to determine correctly which methods to use. 
Acid / alkaline spotting (small concave circular marks) – (this is not actually a paint film ‘problem’ but is added here as many paint symptoms are incorrectly diagnosed as this) if an aggressive alkaline or acidic water solution alights on a paint surface and is subsequently dried by ultra violet (UV) radiation it will produce a small concave circular mark, the so called ‘water spot’ (often with a white residue from the minerals)

Acidic pollutant protection
The latest nanotechnology PPG CeramiClear™ Clear Coat or the newer nanotechnology, although they are highly resistant to chemicals, detergents, scratches and ultra violet radiation (UV) will only offer limited resistance to acid etching. Organic or inorganic protective coatings, with the exception of Acrylic polymers, offer very limited resistance to acidic pollutants (acid rain, bird excrement, industrial fallout, hydrazine and etc.).

The most effective deterrent, once the paint film surface has been decontaminated, is to apply an Acrylic polyaminosiloxane or polyethylene-acrylic (Klasse, Jeff Werkstatt or Duragloss #105 Total Performance Polish) are sulphonic acid-based so they hold up better to acidic pollutants (acid rain, bird excrement, and etc.) there is no cross-linking capability with this technology, and they cannot be layered, however, they form an anchor with the paint by etching, which gives this type of polymer its durability and they are heat resistant up to 350.0F. For added protection apply an organic wax over the polymer sealant as this will act as a sacrificial barrier and by washing the vehicles paint surface on a regular basis. 

Static [the process causes electrons to be pulled from the surface of one material and relocated on the surface of the other material]
Static electricity is an occasional annoyance in seasons of low humidity, but is usually caused when certain materials are rubbed against each other (friction). Using products that do not contain oils (i.e. polymer sealants) will help by not attracting dust.  Finish Kare's 425 quick detailer (QD) has in-built anti-static properties.
A 100% cotton micro fibre towel is inherently anti-static; as opposed to the static build-up caused by friction using a polyester Micro fibre towel on a polythene clear coat.

Air entrapment 
May have an appearance very similar to solvent pop or dust contamination small crater like openings in or on the paint film; cause - trapped air pockets in the wet paint film that rise to the surface and "burst" causing small fissures; lack of atomization is the cause of air entrapment and may be due to one or more of the following;

•Spray gun travel too slow or
•Spray gun held too close to painted surface,
•Low air pressure or
•Improper spray gun setup.

             Correction- sand or compound with 1500 or finer grit paper to remove and then polish to restore gloss.

Artillery Fungus
These resemble asphalt (tar) spots but could be the spore of artillery fungus they look very much like tar spots and are usually about 1/10th-inch in diameter, typically artillery fungus feels like a sticky film, and when flattened can be smeared appearing white
The term artillery refers to the fact that the fungus actively uses energy to shoot its spore masses, sort of like cannon (an artillery piece). They are usually found on the lower parts of a vehicle that has been parked at a gardening centre or close to newly laid grass. It is a fungus that lives in wood-based mulch, the spores are usually shot only a short distance (several feet) but the wind can carry them for longer distances.

Correction-They can be removed by using a chemical paint cleaner (Z-PC Fusion Dual Action Paint Cleaner or Klasse All-In-One) or plastic razor blade to scrape and remove the spot. If the affected paintwork is not neutralized any remaining acid residue will be reactivated each time it comes into contact with water.

Brake Fluid
Common Names-Polyethylene glycol usually a mixture of Ethylene, Diethylene, Polyethylene and Triethylene Glycol and monobutyl ether and cleaning additives; pH 9.5 – 10, this alkaline will degrade paint if allowed to remain on the paint surface for any period of time

Correction- remove for surface(s) as soon as feasible using a chemical paint cleaner and then an abrasive polish. If paint surface has become degraded a re-spray will be required

Calcified Water Marks
Often found from parking in municipal or underground parking facilities, calcified water spots on paint and glass, water and concrete spots are pretty much the same chemically; they are consisting of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) both of which are basic (alkaline pH 10) with the concrete being cross-linked with water. Often mistaken as rust spots     

Correction - these can usually be removed by using detailer's clay to remove any hardened surface deposits
a) Apply 1:1 ratio distilled water with distilled White Vinegar (Acetic acid, pH 2) solution, and using a spray bottle, spray that mixture on the spots and let them "soak." Then rinse with water and repeat as necessary.

b) If the ambient temperature distilled water/ distilled white vinegar mix does not work, use warm (100-120 degrees) 100% distilled White Vinegar, saturate a clean kitchen sponge with undiluted vinegar and hold the sponge over the concrete spots for a few minutes

c) If the above do not remove them try equal parts distilled water, isopropyl alcohol and distilled white vinegar. The acid in the vinegar will help etch and dissolve the concrete.
Rinse the area thoroughly with water after the vinegar and then reapply wax or sealant to that area.
·         To remove any surface etching use a machine polish (Optimum Polish, Optimum Compound, Z-PC Fusion Dual Action Paint Cleaner or Klasse All-In-One (AIO) and a cutting (LC Orange or Yellow) foam pad (speed # 4-5.0) to level the surface (use the least aggressive polish/foam pad first, if this doesn’t remove the problem step-up to a more aggressive set-up)
·         Work on a very small area at a time (2-foot x 2-foot) until the polish has run out
·         Repeat this process two or three times, as necessary
·         If none of the above methods remove the etched water spots, consider wet-sanding the paint finish
·         Reapply surface protection once spots have been removed

[: a construction material composed of cement (commonly Portland cement) as well as other cementitious materials such as fly ash and slag cement, aggregate (generally a coarse aggregate made of crushed rocks such as limestone, or granite, plus a fine aggregate such as sand), water, and chemical admixtures] [1].

Calcified water spots on paint and glass and water and concrete spots are pretty much the same chemically; calcium carbonate, with the concrete being cross-linked with water. These contaminates often drip after passing through concrete decking or the roof of multi-story parking garages

Whatever application method use using short strokes with light pressure or you may cause deep surface scratches
                     If the concrete is ‘fresh’ try using detailer’s clay
                     Apply 1:1 ratio water with distilled White Vinegar solution, and using a spray bottle, spray that mixture on the spots and let them "soak." Then flood-rinse rinse with water to lessen the need to wipe the surface and repeat as necessary.
                     If the ambient temperature water/vinegar mix does not work, warm (100-120 degrees) 100% distilled White Vinegar, saturate a clean kitchen sponge with pure vinegar and hold the sponge over the concrete spots for a few minutes
                     If the above do not remove them try equal parts distilled water, isopropyl alcohol and distilled white vinegar. The acid in the vinegar will help etch and dissolve the concrete.
                     Rinse the area thoroughly with water after the vinegar and then reapply wax or sealant to that area.

Back-Set by Romix is a paint safe acid alternative with no fumes or odours, molecularly breaks down the ionic bond in Portland cement, completely dissolving and releasing the hardened cement from any surface it is adhered to. Chemically speaking, Back-Set converts the positive ions in the hardened matrix into negative ions, which dissolves the cement into mud that can be rinsed away. Because it works chemically, rather than mechanically, Back-Set may be used to remove cured concrete, mortar, grout, and stucco from virtually any surface without harm. Always apply to a dry surface area

Clear Coat Failure 
A chalk like appearance on the paint surface or small triangular marks (crow’s feet) or other similar marks on the paint surface - basically the chemical integrity of the paint has been degraded by ultra violet (UV-B) radiation, stress, environment fall out, acid rain and etc.

 Oxidation really amounts to a weakening of the resins that bind paint, which results in the micro-pores becoming exposed and a larger area of paint becomes oxidized. Once the paint has been breached in this manner, applying waxes and polishes temporarily wets the surface making it appear better. The oxidation residue can be removed with Klasse AIO or Duragloss DG 501   

            Correction- usually entails a re-paint of the affected panel, although sometimes wet-sanding may remove it, if it’s not too deep

Removing more than 0.3 mil (7.5µ) of clear coat will cause premature paint film failure as the ultra violet (UV) protection percolates to the top of the clear coat, there is ultra violet (UV) protection all the way through the paint, but the majority of it migrates to the top of the clear coat along with the thinner solvents and particles.

Therefore, removing clear coat ultra violet protection is not a linear process; by removing a small percentage of the clear coat paint tends to remove a larger percentage of UV inhibitors. So once you remove too much clear coat you'll have no paint UV protection other than what you apply with a LSP

Oxidation is sometimes confused with clear coat failure; the clear coat finish can become ‘dull’ by using harsh (abrasive) or if a high alkaline car washing solution as used in ‘touch less’ car washing systems, or from industrial airborne pollutants compromising the clear coat allowing the suns heat to dry out and oxidize the paint

1. Ultra violet radiation is the prime cause of clear coat failure, infrared radiation (IR) represents part of the ultra violet solar spectrum (approximately 55%-60%). The remaining heat source comes from visible and ultra violet light Infrared radiation infrared radiation (IR) that transmits heat that will cause oxidation by drying out materials, like the paint (binder) resin system, the plasticizers in vinyl, moisture evaporation of leather and the elasticity of rubber causing these materials to dry out and become brittle and compromise their structural integrity
2. Ultra violet light; UV radiation is known to contribute to the chemical modification, photosensitizers (fading) of exposed paint surfaces resulting in loss of gloss, colour change, chalking, flaking and along with infrared heat radiation infrared radiation (IR) eventually the destruction of the clear coat paint film.
First, the paint takes on a cloudy appearance, then as time progresses, we observe small hairline marks start to appear; that's the clear breaking down.

3. Acid Rain, as previously mentioned penetrates the clear coat surface and breaks down the chemical bond between the clear coat and the basecoat colour. Again, this will cause a delamination between the layers since once the chemical bond is destroyed; only the weaker mechanical bond remains. Like the above reason, usually occurs predominately on top surfaces for obvious reasons.

A polyurethane paint (high solid / low solvent) clear coat can absorb moisture; as water molecules are smaller than a cross-linked clear coats molecule. Acid rain can permeate and break down the chemical bonds between the clear coat and the basecoat. This will also cause delamination between the layers since once the chemical bond is destroyed; only the weaker mechanical bond remains.

Clear coat bubbles 
So called solvent pop is caused by the paint topcoats trapping evaporating solvent gases during curing and drying (outgas) the pressure builds causing micro-explosions (pop) pushing up small blister in the wet paint or topcoat. Solvent pop will appear after the film is "skinned over" and when sanded will have pinholes
•Improper paint prep
•Wrong solvent or reducer
•Excessive film thickness
•Too heavy and undercoat can trap solvents
•Insufficient outgas (paint cure)

            Correction- Repaint the base coat and apply a clear-coat to the affected panel

Concave depressions in paint
Refinishing using heat to outgas vs. air/time; auto body repair shops drying oven caused a ‘skin’ to form over the painted surface, trapping solvents in the paint. The vehicle was then subjected to rain water 48 hours after painting. The water is absorbed into the paint and implodes the top surface creating concave depressions in paints horizontal surfaces.
Attempting to correct this by colour sanding and / or buffing will expose the uncured portion of the paint. It is extremely soft, and will not attain hardness for several months, if at all. Attempting to correct by these procedures before it is cured will result in an opaque paint finish (See also Acid / alkaline spotting)
Concentrated calcium or Lime scaleOften from an indoor parking garage, the calcium drips down from the level above onto the paint surface producing a surface stain. When water drips off of concrete and onto your vehicle's paint, it brings with it a tiny bit of calcite and mineral deposits, and sometimes rust deposits from the concretes steel reinforcement (rebar), which dries on the paint when the water evaporates, leaving a light coloured streak that is not miscible. These types of stains should be removed as soon as possible

Correction- to remove the lime residue from glass, carefully remove with a plastic razor blade Lime on paint or plastic can be removed if caught early, use a 1:1 or stronger solution of distilled water/distilled white vinegar (Acetic acid) or try the acidic (B) part of a decontamination system (ValuGuard’s Decontamination Kit) otherwise it can be removed by using an abrasive polish or wet-sanding

Cloudy (Opaque) Clear Coat
If moisture permeates the clear coat it may become ‘cloudy’ or opaque.

Correction- apply isopropyl alcohol (IPA) to the area, allowing it to dwell for five to ten minutes and with a heat gun or hair dryer, heat the area (do not exceeding 100.oF spot temperature) the IPA acts as a "drying" agent, and when combined with the heat the moisture will evaporate

Corrosion (Rust) Removal / Treatment
Pay particular attention to places like wheel well lips, fuel filler, the bottom of doors or trunk hatch; the places where road dirt builds up and retains salt and moisture. Pay particular attention to any part of the paint surface that has been compromised (paint chips) or any bare metal and check that the drainage hole (s) at the bottom of the doors is clear

Rust removal - remove any loose rust / scaling and grind down to ‘surface metal’ were possible, holes, gaps; etc. should be filled with suitable metal filler (Bondo)

Rust converter - phosphoric acid may be used as a rust converter; by direct application to rusted iron, steel tools, or surfaces. The phosphoric acid converts reddish-brown iron oxide (rust) to black ferric phosphate (FePO4)

"Rust converter" is sometimes a greenish liquid suitable for dipping (in the same sort of acid bath as is used for pickling metal), but it is more often formulated as a gel, commonly called naval jelly. It is sometimes sold under other names, such as "rust remover" or "rust killer". As a thick gel, it may be applied to sloping, vertical, or even overhead surfaces.

After treatment, the black ferric-phosphate coating can be washed off, leaving a fresh paint surface. Multiple applications of phosphoric acid may be required to remove all rust. The black phosphate coating can also be left in place, where it will provide moderate further corrosion resistance
Follow up with a rust protection aerosol can of ValuGard Rust Inhibitor and/or some Eastwood Heavy Duty Anti-Rust.

Neutralizing -washing the paint film surface with a slightly alkaline car wash concentrate and thoroughly rinsing will neutralize the contaminants and remove them from the paints surface Detailer's clay removes embedded brake dust and other contaminants by encapsulation, thereby eliminating the primary cause

Treatment- by applying a suitable cleaner and then a rust inhibitor (POR-15® Products) it will arrest corrosion on contact without leaving a sticky residue that would attract dirt, dust or grime.
Corrosion attacks metal by an electrochemical (galvanic) reaction with water as the catalyst. It penetrates the corrosion cells, emulsifying the moisture and separating it from the metal, leaving an ultra-thin barrier to protect from further damage.

Since most corrosion begins in crevices, (seams), it is important to have the capability to penetrate these crevices in order to form a protective barrier. Many heavier or more viscous products don't penetrate crevices, instead they form a `bridge', and while this may isolate the crevice from further contact with the electrolyte it does nothing to eliminate the presence of existing moisture or surface corrosion. Injection into a seam or crevice with an aerosol or spray eliminates this problem Por-15® Products Marine Clean

After the paint surface has been subjected to a chemical cleaning its protective layer (s) have been removed and the paint surface left without protection, so it is very important that a wax or polymer protection be applied immediately.
Rust Inhibitor Treatment - a three-part rust inhibitor treatment by POR-15®
1. Marne Clean ™ cleans and degreases in one application without leaving residues, noxious fumes or flammable solvents. Its water not solvent-based and it cleans without leaving residues, no other cleaner works as fast or as well. It makes petroleum-based cleaners almost obsolete because it can be diluted 5:1with distilled water, thoroughly rinse with clean water after completing your cleaning job.
2. POR-15™ Metal Ready provides the best adhesion for POR-15® on any metal surface, including aluminium and shiny polished metal surfaces.
3. POR-15® is a high-tech, high performance rust-preventive coating designed for application directly on rusted or seasoned metal surfaces. It dries to an incredible rock-hard, non-porous finish that won't chip, crack, or peel, and it prevents rust from recurring by protecting metal from further exposure to moisture.

Dust Nibs
When painting vehicles, contaminants (dust particles) can compromise the visual appearance of the finished paintwork. Exactly how much this happens depends on a number of different factors, such as insufficient cleaning of the existing surface before painting, lint from clothing, the spray booth not being clean enough, and the air supplied to the gun.
These base coat or clear coat dust particles create small bulges in the paint surface, under close examination they have a speck of dirt in the centre of the crater

           Correction- sand or compound with 1200 or finer grit paper to remove and then polish to restore gloss

Deep Scratches (
keyed paint)
Vandalism is an unfortunate fact of life; waking-up to find that your automobile has been ‘keyed’ or scratched will quickly ruin your day.  Comprehensive Insurance should be able to meet a claim like this without raising your rates.

A surface scratch that will `catch' your fingernail is approximately 0.04 Mil (1.0 µ) is usually considered a deep scratch, which will usually require wet sanding and refinishing. Comprehensive Insurance should be able to meet a claim like this without raising your rates. An experienced detailer should be able to repair it or take it to a body-shop for re-painting
Use WD-40 (water displacement) until a repair can be carried out to protect the paint underneath the scratch if it’s down to bare metal

Correction- Put a drop or two of Woolite® liquid in a clean bucket and fill it with clean water. You will need 6-inch x 4-inch sheets of Nikken's™ 2000, 2500 and 3000 grit finishing paper Using a Unigrit Sanding Block and a small can of paint colour-matched to your vehicles colour code
This method requires that you clean the surface with Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and then apply paint to ‘overfill’ the scratch. Apply the paint in multiple layers allowing each layer to dry and remember "patience is the key"

·         Take your time go slow and check progress often. You don't want to sand to deep or through the paint. No need to be aggressive, eventually it will all become smooth and levelled
·         Layer the touch up paint until it’s higher than the surrounding paint
·         Once the last layer of paint has dried (allow 12-24 hours’ dependent upon environmental conditions.
·         Soak the finishing papers in a solution of water and a little dish washing liquid. Place the wet finishing papers on the sanding block and proceed very slowly, keeping the block perfectly flat.
·         Wet-sand using Unigrit 2000, 2500 and 3000 grit finishing paper until the touch-up area is level with the surrounding paint
·         The next step is to polish the paint surface to eliminate the ‘sanding haze’ by using a compound Menzerna PO 34 and an LC Orange foam pad or a Surbuf® R Series ® R Series pad)
·         Then use a finishing polish to bring back the shine; Menzerna PO 203 polish and a LC White polishing foam pa
·         Finish by using Menzerna PO 85 and an LC Black finishing foam pad
·         Finally apply paint protection of choice

The smaller the scratch, the easier it is to correct it with practice this process becomes easier and avoids having a panel being repainted at a body-shop, along with the subsequent loss of using your automobile for a couple of days or more, plus the cost of which would run into hundreds of dollars
For really deep U shaped gouges use Bondo Body filler before painting; use your fingertips to ensure that it covers any contours in the paint surface.  Although Bondo was created for cosmetic repair of dents in cars, the fact that it’s easily malleable and dries rock hard makes it perfect for this application

Clear coat detachment is the result of inferior preparation of the base coat (colour) prior to the application of the clear coat. This may be evident on any area of a vehicle where there is trim such as moldings door handles, window trim, etc. You need to remove the entire clear coat and re-apply a base coat and finally a clear coat. If you don't the new paint will separate due to delamination of the original clear coat under the new paint you applied.

         Correction- repair requires correctly preparing the area by cleaning and sanding, the base coat must be examined (checked with a paint thickness meter) to insure correct film build and the clear re-applied. The entire panel should be refinished rather than attempting a ‘spot repair’. Any attempt to hide the defect by wet sanding and polishing / compounding will result in further damage by removing the paint build (thickness)
Emblem or Sticker Residue
To remove the residue from shipping protection plastic adhesive, double-sided tape or dealership stick-on decals, the safest way to remove it without damage to the paint, is to use 3M General Purpose Adhesive Remover or a 3M Stripe Off Wheels and Meguiar’s® Last Touch Detail Spray diluted 1:1 distilled water or Gloss It EVP Pad Prime for surface lubrication. If the adhesive residue is thick try reducing its mass with a plastic razor blade and apply heat from a hairdryer in conjunction with the 3M cleaner

Egg Stains / Damage to Paint surface
As well as the impact damage, egg contains Albumin (refers generally to any protein with water solubility) and amino Aspartic and Glutamic acids that will erode the clear coat and eventually the basecoat if not neutralized / removed. If the affected paintwork is not neutralized any remaining acid residue will be reactivated each time it comes into contact with heat / water (See also Reactivity)
Wash the affected area with an alkaline car wash concentrate (P21S Total Auto Wash) and then rehydrate the area with an Isopropyl Alcohol soaked micro fibre towel and keep it ‘wet’ for 4-5 minutes with the towel laid on the stain, do not agitate the surface. Flush with clean water and dry thoroughly. Inspect surface for cracking, discoloration or other damage with a 30X lighted magnifying loupe.
Impact damage (paint surface cracks) –
Use a chemical cleaner to remove any discoloration, Klasse All-In-One or Zaino Z-PC Fusion Dual Action Paint Cleaner and then the least abrasive polish or wet-sand to level the paint surface to below the level of the etching (a shallow indentation in the paint surface caused by an acid)
1.      Use detailing clay to remove any `hard' surface granules and then use the least abrasive methodology to remove blemishes

2.      Use a machine polish (Optimum Polish, Optimum Compound) and a cutting (LC White, Orange or Yellow) foam pad (speed # 4- 5.0) to level the paint surface
3.      For CeramiClear or other hard clear coats substitute Menzerna for machine polish; Super Intensive Polish / Nano Polish (105FF) or Final Finish Polish (106FA)
4.      Use the least aggressive polish/foam pad first, if this doesn’t remove the problem step-up to a more aggressive polish / foam pad set-up
5.      Menzerna Power Finish (PO203S) - (M) this is a one-step scratch remover polish is formulated for CeramiClear or other ‘Hard’ paints. It will remove 2500 grit, cut 3.0-gloss 3.5, is formulated as a quick way to polish out light flaws and amplify the paint’s gloss. Use a primed Orange (mid-range, high density foam (60 PPI) medium abrasive cutting action LC CCS foam pad 1200 RPM
6.      Wet-sand with 2000, 2500 or 3000 grit finishing paper

7.      After the paint surface has been subjected to a chemical cleaning its protective layer (wax / sealants) have been removed and the paint surface left without protection, so it is very important that a wax or polymer protection be reapplied immediately.

Iz einszett GraffitiEx Universal Gel acetone and hydrocarbon free graffiti remover quickly and safely removes graffiti such as spray paint and felt tip pens from all sensitive surfaces including painted surfaces, reflective films on road signs, acrylic, and more. Formulated with water-soluble and water-based solvents and does not contain acetone, any aromatic or chlorinated hydrocarbons making it safe on the environment and for you

Hail Damage

See Paintless Dent Repair (PDR)

Latex Paint Removal
 Try removal in this order-
1.      D-limonene based (citrus) based detergent cleaner - (P21S Total Auto Wash) may help; be sure to allow plenty of dwell time.
2.      Solvents - dwell time is important, start mild with (3M™ Adhesive and Wax Remover or DuPont Prep Sol 3919)
3.      Detailers clay – start with a medium and progress to a heavy grade 
4.      Plastic razor blade to abrade the surface of dried paint with a plastic (ScrapeRite blades) or use single-sided razor blade
5.      A combination of the plastic blade or detailers clay and a solvent, be patient and work small areas when practical.
6.      The painted surfaces are frequently easier than anticipated, however the rubber and vinyl trim pieces may take more time / patience.

Leaf Stain Removal
Once it lands on a paint surface the leaf bleeds sap from its phloem tubes along with dissolved sucrose, produced by photosynthesis in the leaf. Some especially those from an Oak tree, if left to settle on a painted surface will lightly etch the surface; this is due to the tannic acid or tannin they contain

Correction - use a citrus-based cleaner (P21S Total Auto Wash) or apply isopropyl alcohol (IPA) to the area, allowing it to dwell for five to ten minutes and then remove with a damp micro fibre towel. To remove the etching use a (least to most abrasive) a chemical paint cleaner, detailers clay or an abrasive polish

Moisture Entrapment

Paint will sometimes show ‘hazing” after removing the protective polyurethane transit protection film on new shipped vehicles. Car covers, tarpaulins or any other covering that doesn’t allow the free passage of air. The temporary hazing, which can appear as a slight dull discoloration, stain, or raised surface in the paint is caused by the paint finish absorbing moisture trapped below the protection film.
Correction- In most cases, by applying Isopropyl alcohol and exposure to sunlight allows the moisture to evaporate within a few hours. For colder climates, moisture evaporation recovery can be accelerated by placing the vehicle indoors and/or using a portable infrared heat lamp (or professional-type heat gun). Allow the affected area to outgas by not using a wax or sealer on the affected are for a few days

Current Information
A little science is useful to understand both the How and Why of detailing and to be of real practical use, a subject like automotive detailing requires a great deal of research, and updating as new products become available. The advent of materials like detailing clay, micro fibre technologies and finely milled micro diminishing abrasives, suitable for ceramic nanotechnology paints are examples of why it’s so important to monitor the industries new products, chemical technologies and ideas that are constantly being introduced, as are the techniques for applying them, hence all of the in-depth articles will be up-dated and revised on a regular basis

Always be willing to learn; because the more you learn, the more you’ll realize what you don’t know. You should never stop learning, and your quest for information should be part of your everyday process. It is said that knowledge is power, with the caveat that it includes access to a reliable information sources. I would like to think that these articles become an asset to anyone who is new to detailing and to professional’s alike, as well as industry experts who seek to advance their knowledge.

I detailed my first vehicle at the age of fourteen (1958) forty plus years later I started to write detailing articles to share my experiences. For about fifteen years or so I started to contribute to various detailing forums answering questions posted by neophyte’s, enthusiasts and professionals alike. My mantra has always been Experience Unshared Knowledge Wasted.

I purchase all the products I use, so the endorsement is entirely personal and commercially unbiased, the product recommendation is based on "Does exactly what it says on the tin" and it suits my detailing goals. The products mentioned have been personally subjected to extensive laboratory (using state of the art instruments and methodologies in some of the world's most prestigious labs) as well as field testing, and using the methodology and tools cited, which may or may not be the same as those recommended by the manufacturer.

It has been my experience that they will perform the task more than adequately, hence the personal recommendation, as this testing is carried out without sponsorship I have no intention of publishing any test results. Using the methodology and tools cited, which may or may not be the same as those recommended by the manufacturer.

I hope these articles are informative. They are based on the current status of technical development as well as my experience with the products.
By having some understanding of the ‘What’ and ‘Why’ as well as the ‘How’ along with a little science to help you understand how the chemicals we use react, you can achieve the results you desire.

I would appreciate it if you would share these articles as it helps other detailers further their knowledge.

As always if you have questions, I’ll do my best to answer; bear in mind the only stupid questions is the one that was unasked. Questions and/ or constructive comments are always appreciated

Copyright © 2002 - 2015 TOGWT® (Established 1980) all rights reserved

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