Sunday, 30 July 2017

Water Filtration Methods

CR Spotless Mobile Units

a) Distilled water - is actually boiled in a still and the condensate collected and distributed. Distillation removes both ionic and non-ionic organic contaminants.

b) Deionized (DI) - is water that has been passed through a column or membrane to remove ions present. If it is of the type used in homes, it is not truly a de-ionizer, removing all ions, but rather an ion exchange column that exchanges polyvalent ions such as magnesium (Mg2+) ++ and calcium ( Ca2+) ++ for Na+ ions. A de-ionizing column will not remove non-ionic organic substances from the water. De-ionized (DI) DI water is achieved by filling a cylinder with DI resin and connected it to a mains hard supply.

The DI resin will strip out all the minerals and impurities from the water leaving the water completely clean and 99.9% pure and is also very aggressive and mildly corrosive. It is therefore, excellent for cleaning most surfaces without the use of detergents. It is used / to wash windows and the static on the glass will be broken and therefore dirt would be less attracted - there is also no need for the use of detergents on the glass.

c) Reverse Osmosis (RO) –is produced by forcing the solvent (water) through an ultra fine membrane (filter) under pressure (leaving the ion in the water behind) the water system inlet takes water to a pre-cleaner sediment filter, then it is passed through a membrane, which captures the minerals and has to be flushed constantly to wash the minerals from the membrane, and then on to the water outlet to drain. Chlorine will damage the membranes over time, and will eventually "by-pass" the membrane, producing a mildly acidic solution. It requires up to 10-15 gallons producing 1-gallon of pure water.

The RO system is slow and not very energy efficient due to its water requirements as opposed to its output of pure water (i.e. 1500 raw water to produce 100 gallons RO water) Reverse Osmosis water is 98% pure and 'made' by passing softened water through the RO system via a membrane. Most domestic RO systems will typically waste 12 litres of water for every litre of pure water it produces.

RO water is very aggressive and mildly corrosive - this is why it is excellent for cleaning, even without detergents. It is 'produced by passing softened water through the RO system via a membrane. In the colder winter months (or anytime really where the temperature drops below 15 degrees), the water wasted will typically increase to nearly double the summer wastage. This is because the membrane shrinks in the winter cold water, and more water runs to drain. It should be noted that RO water is, only 98% pure, which means it is not pure enough to be streak-free or immune from causing water spots. The only way would be to pass the RO water through a DI vessel which would make it 99.9% pure and will perform the final 'polish' of the water

d) Alkaline removal - by anion exchange resins is accomplished by the exchange of chloride for bicarbonate and carbonate alkalinity, thus the finished water is enriched with chlorides. Exhausted resin is regenerated with sodium chloride, much like a water softener

e) Adding Optimum No Rinse - if you are using tap water that contains high levels of minerals such as calcium hydroxide or silicates, some of the polymers will bind to these minerals and take them out of solution, therefore, more product might be necessary to compensate for this effect. Adding Optimum No Rinse (ONR) to a regular car wash soap will improve the results when using tap water (0.5 oz/gallon) always add it to the water to remove the minerals before adding your soap. This will maximize the benefits of using No Rinse in this manner.

f) Water Softener - whether your water supply consists of hard or soft water is determined by the geology of the ground that the rain in your region falls upon. Pure rainwater is naturally soft, but the chalk and limestone regions surrender calcium and magnesium into the natural water supply to create hard water. Areas that contain granite do not contain the same minerals and so the water remains ‘soft’.
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3 is usually the principal cause of hard water. As hard water is heated the Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) separate out and form a crust on surfaces they come into contact with. This is what we know as lime scale.

Water softening is not a complete ion exchange process; but rather a reduction of the concentration of calcium, magnesium, and certain other metal cations in hard water. The water to be treated passes through a bed of the resin. Negatively-charged resins absorb and bind metal ions, which are positively charged

Salt does not directly soften water; salt is only used to regenerate water softeners. The salt creates a brine, which flushes the resin bed in the water softener to restore the equivalent sodium ions. The process is called ion exchange, which uses an ion exchange resin. The resin comprises tiny polymeric beads which are specially formulated so that they can be charged with certain ions.

The sodium (Na) or potassium chloride (KCl) a metal halide salt,  performs an ion exchange with the hardness metals (calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), etc), so basically the hardness metals are replaced with Sodium Chloride (NaC1)  The "harder" the water, the more hydrogen (H2), sodium or potassium ions are released from the resin and into the water.

The increase in Sodium (salt) levels in the water can be significant, especially when treating very hard water; therefore a water softener would be somewhat of a compromise when it comes to vehicle washing. The increase in Sodium (salt) levels in the water can be significant, especially when treating very hard water; 
therefore a water softener would be somewhat of a compromise when it comes to vehicle washing A water softener does not remove all the minerals that are responsible for ‘water spotting’, it also tends to strip wax by increasing the effectiveness of detergents. 

Water softeners remove those ions by exchanging them for sodium or potassium ions. This makes soap molecules difficult to remove by simple dilution; potentially leaving a surface coating of insoluble stearates, which leaves a soap film on the paint surface

 The only way to get truly "clean" water is distilled or de-ionized water; but the increase in sodium (salt) levels in the water can be significant, especially when treating very hard water; therefore a water softener would be somewhat of a compromise when it comes to vehicle washing

Griot’s Garage In-Line Water Softener & Deionizer - this inline filter removes minerals from tap water to end water spots. Now it's possible to rinse the car and dry it off without the worry of my glass and paint spots before you can get to it. Simply attach to your hose spigot; the green crystals change to purple, indicating when it's time to replace the filter. Measures 13 x 4.25 - inch diameter, fittings included (130 USD) Replacement In-Line Water Filter (110 USD) How long do refills last?  TDS Level – 300, expected Yield in Gallons 66 (further details on their website)

Clear Inline Hose Filter Canister - is a compact unit that attaches directly to your Inline hose and removes unwanted minerals and sediment as the water passes through. Minerals, particularly calcium and magnesium, are what constitutes “hard water”. Hard water is responsible for water spots, poor-lathering shampoo, and that green ring around your bathtub. The calcium and magnesium actually harden inside pipes (called “scale”) and on other surfaces, including your vehicle.

When you rinse with hard water, you could be dousing your vehicle with hard mineral deposits. The only way to prevent hard water deposits is with a water softener. The Clear Inline Hose Filter Canister can be fitted with either a water softener or a filter cartridge to give you clean, clear water for washing your vehicle. Clean Water Filter Kit (95 USD) Filter Combo (both filter cartridges) - GPW-FC2 (27 USD)

CR Spotless - the DIC-10 provides approximately 100 gallons, the DIC-20 provides approximately 300 gallons of mineral-free, de-ionized water that will provide spot-free vehicle washing and remove hard water minerals, based on your water input quality. It consists of two de-ionization housings that feature replaceable cartridges that simply slide into the watertight tubes.
This unit can be mounted next to your hose bib and comes with pre-drilled mounting holes. Using a pressure washer allows you to detail a car while using significantly less water, maximizing the life of your system (DIC-10 Medium Output Rolling System – 400 USD)

Connecting a CR Spotless unit to a Water Softener; you've still got the same total dissolved solids (TDS) going into the CR unit with softened water and with tap water. Now you’ve simply exchanged hard (tap) water with a solution of sodium (what is basically salt water)
Hard water contains excessive amounts of minerals, calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+). These minerals when dried leave behind hardened deposits that appear as spots (hence ‘water spotting)

1. CR Spotless - water is passed through a column or membrane to remove ions present (ion exchange) using polyvalent ions such as magnesium (Mg2+) ++ and calcium (Ca2+) ++ for Na+ ions. Deionised resin strips out all the minerals and impurities from the water by exchanging Ca and Mg ions for H and OH, the resultant H20 is completely clean and 99.9% pure
2. Water Softener – is an ion exchange process, the minerals ions are exchanged with sodium ions. The water to be treated passes through a bed of the resin; negatively-charged resins absorb and bind metal ions, which are positively charged. The resins initially contain a divalent (single) hydrogen, sodium or potassium ions, which exchange with divalent calcium and magnesium ions in the water. The "harder" the water, the more hydrogen, sodium or potassium ions are released from the resin and into the water. Once water is softened it results in an alkaline sodium solution.
Both the above systems remove minerals from the water, but they use differing methods.

Rust / Sediment Filter Unit
Remove Ferric (rust or dissolved) Iron
One of the most common contaminants of well water and even municipal water systems is iron. Iron contamination can be found in two general forms, ferric iron which consists of particles of solid iron (rust) that can be removed by mechanical water filters (sediment filters), and ferrous or dissolved iron which must be removed from water by special iron water filters.

Next to hardness, the presence of iron is probably the most common water problem faced by consumers and water treatment professionals. The secondary (aesthetic) maximum contaminant levels (MCL) for iron and manganese are 0.3 ppm (milligrams per litre (mg/l) and 0.05 ppm, respectively. Iron and manganese in excess of the suggested maximum contaminant levels (MCL) usually result in discoloured water. In addition to causing an unpleasant metallic taste, particulates in your particulates in your drinking and household water can cause unsightly staining of plumbing fixtures and laundry. A water softener is capable of removing iron from water up to 0.5 ppm of iron

If your iron content is no more than 3ppm it can be removed with an iron reduction filter cartridge, which effectively removes iron, manganese, and hydrogen sulphide (rotten egg smell) from municipal or well water.  The iron content of 5 ppm iron (or about 2 ppm hydrogen sulphide) requires a better filtration system.
An Iron Removal Filter Cartridge contains manganese greensand, the same media employed in many expensive iron water filtration systems, however, it is packaged in a standard 20-inch filter housing that any homeowner can manage and maintain. When the dissolved iron comes in contact with the manganese greensand media, it is rapidly oxidized, turning the ferrous iron into a ferric form which is then mechanically filtered and removed from the water.

When the iron water filter has reached the end of its service life, it is simply replaced with a new cartridge - there is no media to regenerate, no backwashing, no chemicals to worry about, etc.
These units are often used as a pre-filter for a Water softener,  Power Washer or a CRSpotless DI system

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