Process over Product
A wax or coating can only reflect what is underneath it, so a clean, level well-prepared surface is the most important consideration (85% of a surfaces reflectivity is its preparation) along with applied product clarity. If you apply a product over a surface that is dirty or one that has surface imperfections a wax or sealant will not disguise it, only highlight them.
Product Directional Application
Be cognizant that the paint finish must be polished until most of the surface imperfections have been removed. A levelled paint surface is what is required to obtain a mirror-like light reflection. This level of paint surface finishing is generally reserved for Concours d’élégance Vehicle Preparation
Products contain abrasives and should be applied in straight-line motions (Forget what Mr. Miyagi was teaching the Karate Kid) circular motions will cause circular directional marks (swirl marks) When an abrasive is applied by hand the pressure applied is uneven and the reflected light highlights the paint films surface peaks and valleys differently.
Sealant, Glaze or Wax
Are all non-abrasive so direction of application won’t cause directional marks to the surface; if you find micro-marring on your paint surface the problem is more likely to be either insufficient surface preparation or dirt / grit debris on your applicator
If there is grit on the paint surface or on the applicator a circular swirl or scratch is much easier to see (catches light more often) than one small straight scratch; that’s why I often recommend straight application.
Paint Surface Cleaner
P21S® Paintwork Cleanse, a gloss-enhancing chemical cleanser that contains fillers (Kaolin or China clay) will remove old wax, light swirls and oxidation. It can be applied by hand or with an orbital polisher. Paint cleaners are designed to remove old wax, oxidation, embedded dirt and light stains from your paint surface. They can remove micro-marring of the surface (i.e. light towel marks) but typically will not remove imperfections that require levelling the clear coat, but can remove some oxidation and mineral deposits.
Swissvax Cleaner Fluid Regular is an advanced non-abrasive paint preparation solution containing mild chemical cleaning agents and heavy glazing oils that fill and mask minor paint defects and are simply unrivalled in terms of producing a perfect oil-rich surface ready for Swissvax wax protection.
Swissvax Cleaner Fluid Professional Finish is aimed squarely at the prestige and performance market, it offers significant advantages in situations where customers request a reasonable degree of paint correction, but are unwilling to pay for a time consuming multi-stage polishing process. In just a single step using either a dual action or rotary machine polisher it will typically enable you to correct most light to moderate paint defects present, and at the same time produce a terrific looking gloss that requires no further refinement prior to the addition of Swissvax wax protection. Furthermore, it makes short work of sticky paint, making it a must have polish for use on modern Porsche, Range Rover and Subaru.
Chemical solvent paint cleaners are good to use if you want to prep the paint surface prior to applying a wax (without polishing). My preference would be to use an IPA or DuPont’s PrepSol as they don’t leave any (silicone / mineral) oils or etc behind, as these can cause problems when polishing if they are not removed
Formulated with solvents to remove old wax, embedded dirt and light stains from paint; they help to restore gloss and remove light surface imperfection. They are designed to be used as often as required without measurably reducing paint thickness.
Werkstat Prime Strong, this water-based cleans contaminants from paint surface, including tar, sap, and blurs the line between polishes and sealants, since it has tremendous cleaning and light polishing properties but also lays down a layer of durable sealant protection, which is best described by mirror-like reflectivity, razor sharp clarity and, on metallic and pearlescent finishes. It draws out deep-seated dirt and grime and simultaneously lays down very tough acrylic polymers to form a highly durable elastic sealing layer.
A further benefit of the intensely smooth and level coating laid down is the finish it gives, which is best described by mirror-like reflectivity, razor sharp clarity on metallic and pearlescent finishes
An Optically perfect shine
Comes from a clean, prepared and level surface; it improves the desired optical properties i.e. surface reflectance. The other requirements are surface gloss, depth of shine and applied product transparency (clarity), which allows all of the components of an optically perfect shine to be visible.
Paint Preparation (before applying a wax) for a pristine paint film surface after the application of detailer’s clay or polishing, use a chemical paint cleaner, or what used to be called ‘pre-wax cleaners’ (Swissvax Cleaner Fluid Regular or Swissvax Cleaner Fluid Professional Finish) to ensure the surface is clean and the sub-surface is free of any grease or other residue, this will ensure surface adhesion and enhance durability
• The best light reflection is obtained from a perfectly flat highly reflective surface, i.e. glass over a silver metallic material –a mirror
• A polish would need to level a paint surface; this will provide a surface without distortion
• To provide protection to our theoretically perfectly distortion-free surface we would need to apply a wax or a polymer sealant, which in turn would need to be optically clear
An optically perfect crystalline shine is the result of combining a polymer sealant for its reflective shine properties with a Carnaubas three-dimensional jetting properties.
The oils that are formulated in Carnauba waxes provide gloss, which causes jetting (a ‘wetting’ of the surface) this distorts the light reflectance, giving the surface the ‘look’ of rippling liquidity, like a mirror in shallow water reflecting a three-dimensional deep, rich colour, in contrast, bees wax, paraffin and many synthetic waxes and polymer sealants tend to occlude (yellow)
The aesthetics- of a vehicles appearance is very subjective to say the least, the only best wax or sealant that really matters is what looks 'best' to you. In the final analysis it all come down to; 85% preparation, 5% product, 7% application method and the balance is pure emotion
In obtaining the ‘optically perfect shine’ we should be equally concerned with ease of application, resistance to abrasion, atmospheric contamination and weathering. Products should be chosen that would carefully balance each of these considerations without focusing on one specific characteristic.
A surface protection with a spectacular shine but limited durability just doesn’t make sense.
Zymol Vintage Glaze is the most optically clear Carnauba wax I’ve used, applied with bare hands; it’s got to be seen to be believed
• Clean-washed to remove oxidation, surface dirt and grime, tar and road film
• Reflectivity – that comes from a clean and level surface
• Gloss-that comes from oils and polymers with their ability to reflect light with a minimum of light diffusion to produce surface shine
• Optical depth-comes from an applied product that is two-dimensional, so that light is reflected from both a high and low source, (i.e. a Carnauba waxes ‘egg-grate’ type structure) as opposed to a polymer elongated and flat ‘chain-link’ type mesh, which ‘distorts’ reflected light to produce a rippling effect (warmth)
• Optimising light refraction -apply product in ‘direction of airflow’, horizontal surfaces hood to trunk, vertical surfaces front to back. This application technique affects the paints optical properties by optimising light refraction and the reflectivity of the bodylines and contours of the vehicle
• Transparency-or clarity of the applied product, which will enable all the above components to be clearly visible
b) Contributing factors:
• Cleaned- using a mildly alkaline (pH 7.5) car wash concentrates to remove surface road dirt and grime and then- using detailer’s clay to remove ingrained pollution from the paint surface, and a chemical paint cleaner (Swissvax Cleaner Fluid Regular) to prepare the surface for a polymer sealant and a Carnauba wax.
• Polished-removal of minor blemishes, surface scratches, swirl marks and water marks with an abrasive machine polish or compound (Menzerna) to provide a level surface.
A machine polish should remove surface imperfections and swirl marks, contain oils for lubrication and should not leave residue that requires extensive ‘clean-up’ to remove hazing, its solvents should evaporate moderately quickly without leaving excess wax/oils behind, and lastly should buff relatively easily.
• Glazed- to obtain a high gloss by providing the necessary oils and burnishing the paint surface to a high optically clear gloss
• Protected- the polymers carrier system (solvents) allows the product to fill and level the paint film surface to produce an ultra-flat surface while proving durable surface protection. A polymer (Duragloss) with its levels of shine, gloss, clarity, reflectivity, depth and 99% optical clarity, which doesn’t distort or detract from the paints colour or lines of the vehicle.
• Waxed-the applications of Carnauba (Pinnacle Souverän™ Paste Wax) that will provide oils to provide a ‘wet-look’ to the surface and will also provide a transparent surface when layered without yellowing or discoloration, with a depth of shine by providing a two-dimensional surface.
• Light coloured paint -i.e. Silver, White, etc (the exception is speed yellow) will never obtain jetting (the so called ‘wet-look’) of black or dark colours as they do not exhibit visible depth, light colours tends to reflect light instead of absorbing it and providing a 2-dimentional look.
• You can obtain a good gloss provided the paint is good quality and if it’s prepared and detailed correctly; washed, cleaned, polished and a polymer sealant added (SG, Jeff Werkstatt - Acrylic Jett ) these sealants will provide a flat silvery-white shine, but without ‘depth’ .
• By adding a Carnauba wax or a Glaze as an LSP (Pinnacle Souverän™ Paste Wax or Autoglym Super Resin Polish or Danase Wet Glaze) the oils and / or polymers that are formulated in the Carnauba waxes provide a reflective gloss, which causes jetting (a ‘wetting’ of the surface) For optimal results the surface of a light coloured paint to show gloss is very much dependent upon good / excellent paint condition, adequately prepped to remove contaminants and minor imperfections. Detailer’s clay (Sonus SFX Ultra-Fine Detailing Clay Bar) and / or Paint cleaner () should be a regular part of the preparation process.
[: this process is given various names- Burnishing, Finessing, Jewelling and Finite paint finishing]
Around 1950 body shops would call it jewelling because they would have to re-buff single stage paint's a week or two after hand over to the client. . After a curing process they would have the customer bring the car back and finely burnish the surface with a finish polish that had almost no abrasive abilities and a soft wool pad, this step was referred to as ’jewelling’ to bring out a deep lustre in the paint surface.
Most detailers associate machine polishing with removing swirls, scratches and water spots and producing a level surface, but show car owners, Concours d’élégance participants and paint renovation technicians have long known that all paint finishes, even brand new finishes, can be improved by a final paint burnishing, increasing maximum gloss by reducing microscopic abrasion scratches on the paint's surface, which will increase the gloss of the paint. This process is usually reserved for those who can appreciate the extra effort, and simply want their cars to look their absolute best regardless of cost
Finessing a paint surface is a process of reducing applied pressure and machine speed in combination with a longer polishing time. It is really effective with a rotary polisher and a diminishing abrasive. Be cognizant that excessive pressure will make the pad / polish combination more aggressive, this has the effect of increasing kinetic energy (friction heat) which may result in a strikethrough
Before using this optional step the paint surface should be scratch-free, level and any holograms are removed. If the surface is polished ’flat’ it will reflect light evenly, as opposed to refracting it at high and low spots, which will increase the overall reflective optics of the paint. Once this has been accomplished the paint surface can be further finessed by using a non-abrasive ultra soft pad and a diminishing polish combination. It can sometimes take up to four hours or more finessing a paint finish if it is felt that a higher gloss is obtainable.
Typically the final step in surface polishing; using a finishing polish (Menzerna Super Finish SF4000) in tandem with a pad that has no abrasive abilities (LC CCS Gold (100 PPI) Finishing foam). By using little pressure at the beginning of the pass to help fracture the abrasives since the pad isn't providing abrasion and an ultra fine finishing polish, for the removal of any microscopic pad abrasion, which also reduces the chance of holograms
If the polish runs out of surface lubrication add Gloss It EVP Pad Prime is high-grade lubricating oil that greatly extends machine polishing times.
Rotary Polisher –use slow linear movements, machine passes in single direction using medium pressure. Use a non aggressive foam pad (LC Gold 100 PPI) and start at 1500, 1200 and then reduce speed to 1000 RPM, adding a tiny bead of polish and then finally finish at 600 RPM, using moderate constant pressure. until the diminishing abrasive goes clear (somewhat similar to Vaseline®) and then make few passes at 800 / 900 RPM using little to no pressure.
By working the abrasives, so that only the finest particulates remain, these micro-fine abrasives will provide the highest obtainable gloss, without leaving any micro-marring of the paint surface.
Larger diameter pads can be beneficial for final polishing, since they can be used longer before they load up with buffing residue. This can be the difference between a pristine finish, and one that is mildly marred with ultra-fine hazing.
Random Orbital Polisher - use a moderately non aggressive foam pad (LC White) and firm constant pressure, set speed at about 5000 OPM (Flex 3401 using speed setting 3) until polish breaks down then reduce speed to approx. 3500 OPM and work until refined.
Another technique when using a rotary by having your pads off- centre for an orbital style spin does work well at stopping holograms and should only be used with the jewelling process once the polish has broken down, or by using a non-diminishing polish.
Carnauba wax over a Polymer sealant
Some detailers find that a polymer sealant tends have a flat, silvered mirror look. Adding a Carnauba wax to the surface provides depth of shine, gloss, jetting (the so called ‘wet look’) and a warmth to the paint surfaces overall look.
Bear in mind that how a paint surface ‘looks’ is very subjective and tends to invoke an emotional reaction rather than a logical one 95% of an applied wax comprises out gassed solvent that is wiped away, whereas 65% of a polymer sealant that is applied remains.
Detailers who prepare show cars will often layer a Carnauba wax on top of a synthetic wax; the synthetic wax acts as a gloss layer, while the carnauba wax adds depth and a wet-looking (jetting) appearance
Need a porous surface to bond to, they initially adhere by surface tension and then after a period in which the solvents /oils in the carrier system vaporize (outgas) the polymers cross-link to form a covalent (molecular) bond to the surface. This process usually requires 12-24 hours, which are time and temperature and / or humidity dependent.
As can be seen from the above a polymer must form a molecular bond with the paint surface before the application of a Carnauba wax, otherwise the solvents that are formulated in the wax may compromise the bonding and durability of the polymer sealant
A wax or sealant can only reflect what is underneath it, so a clean, level well-prepared surface is the most important consideration (85% of a surfaces reflectivity is its preparation) along with applied product clarity.
Using a Foam Applicator
To apply wax without surface abrasion use soft foam (80 PPI) Lake County CCS Wax Applicator is the excellent tool. Applying wax has never been easier. There are waxes that need to be applied with bare hands, but for other paste waxes use the above foam pad applicator.
Lake County CCS Wax Applicator – the collapsed cell structure foam pad is designed to comfortably and naturally fit in your hands. With increased pressure to the foam pad more product is applied to the surface; this translates to a more even application and more efficient use of the product.
Applying Paste Wax
1. Always apply to a freshly washed, clean (detailer’s clay) and dry paint surface
2. Dip applicator into wax container with a gentle wiping motion to get a small amount of wax on your (damp or dry, see mfg instructions) foam or micro fibre towel applicator, then using a flat hand (not finger tips) and light pressure rub it onto your car in a thin coat
3. Always apply wax in a thin, repeat, thin layer (See note 4) two overlapping coats will ensure complete coverage (for multi-layer application see Spit-shine)
4. Using a clean, slightly damp (See note 1)100% cotton micro fibre towel, gently wipe it across the paste wax
5. Fold the towel in half and rub the two halves together to evenly dispense the wax
6. Overlap each working area to ensure an even coverage, since your spreading the product as far as possible, it can be as large as a panel
7. Gently apply the wax thinly and evenly over your working area
8. After a panel has been applied, do a wipe test (See note 2) the wax residue with a 100% cotton micro fibre towel (See note 3)
9. Repeat steps 1 through 5 until your entire vehicle has been waxed
10. I use a random orbital, set on a low speed to ensure the solvents don’t ‘flash’ prematurely, to apply wax / sealant for two reasons, it applies a thin even (providing pressure used is consistent) overlapping layer as it mimics hand application due to its inherent oscillating motion, and it’s easier and more efficient
11. A good technique with high Carnauba wax content waxes is to buff the wax with a Swisswax 100% cotton micro fibre towel as a polyester / polyamide Microfiber towel will remove too much of the wax due to the way they are constructed) and then spritz the paintwork with very cold distilled water and wipe down; this helps to set the wax and will add that little extra gloss.
12. Allow the solvents to flash / dry (vaporize or outgas) in the sun’s heat (approx 1 hour, dependent upon environmental temperature) and then buff to a gloss (See note 2) using a Swissvax 100% cotton micro fibre towel. (See also “Hand Application” and “Layering”)
As a wax ‘sets-up’, it goes through a number of stages.
1. The first stage is the application of the liquid product; friction will cleanse the dirt, oxidization, old waxes etc. In effect you are lifting the dirt away from the paintwork and into the liquid wax and then into the applicator.
2. The solvent carrier system is too ensure the wax remains semi-solid (i.e. spreadable) to find out if the solvents have out gassed (vaporised) run your finer along the panel, if it is dry the wax is ready to be buffed
3. The next stage is that you leave the wax to haze. This is where the solvents and oils out gas (evaporate) and leave the resin and fillers behind to dry and set-up on the paint, leaving a hard shell type protection
4. Next you remove the excess with a 100% cotton micro fibre towel (See note 5). Anything that is now not bonded to the paint will be wiped away with the buffing towel and as you wipe away you will end up giving the resin a slight buff to bring out its gloss
It cannot be emphasized enough ‘Apply products very sparingly’ Ease of product removal is inversely proportional to the amount used
After conducting a swipe-test and removing residue; park the newly waxed vehicle in the sun (or heated garage) and wait three to four hours, which will be dependent upon ambient temperature / humidity, this is to ensure solvents outgas (evaporation) and then lightly buff the paint again to perfect the shine, you’ll notice both the chroma (intensity level or richness of a colour) and a deepening of the shine, then lightly buff the paint again to perfect the gloss.
1. Because a dry cloth absorbs liquids, application with a dry cloth will result in the absorption of the wax as opposed to spreading it on the surface, use a damp applicator (similar process to pad priming)
2. A Microfiber towel made from polyester (the scrubbing and cleaning fibre), and polyamide (the absorbing and quick drying fibre) will adsorb (hold onto) liquids due to its inherent properties, their unique wedge shape of the cross-section of each of the fibres, which enables them to slice into coatings lifting and removing them from the surface (much like a miniature squeegee) as they are wiped across the surface.
3. The nature of this yarn is that it is an absorbent; the reason polyester appears to adsorb liquids is the many thousands of micro fibres that collectively encapsulate liquids.
4. The correct method for the application of a wax and to obtain optimum results: is to apply it very thinly. Ease of product removal is inversely proportional to the amount used.
5. Buffing - Swisswax 100% cotton micro fibre towel with a terrycloth weave, spun with long staple cotton and then woven into 100% natural looped terrycloth or velour, were the loops are trimmed to produce a blunt fine nap, which is ideal for removing wax and for final surface buffing
Marque Specific Sealants and Wax
Paints from different (DuPont, PPG, BASF, etc) manufacturers do not favour one wax over another; there is no factual basis for a special wax or sealant formulated for a specific vehicle model, nor custom coloured waxes with pigment dyes to mach original paint. Wax doesn’t form a molecular bond with the paint surface; it just forms a ‘shell’, so there is no chemical reaction between paint and wax.
The clear coat is applied for both protection of the colour coat and to give it depth; some marques clear coat paints vary i.e. some are softer/ thinner etc. If you apply a non-clear wax or sealant, or a custom coloured wax it will only mute the paints colour and depth of shine.
There is a lot of discussion about whether or not it is possible to layer Carnauba on a paint surface, it works on leather boots (providing you neutralize the solvent) and in my experience it also works, up to a point, on a cars paint service.
I prefer the word ‘film’ (1-0.5 µ (0.004 – 0.02 Mil) as opposed to ‘layer’, a film more accurately describes a thinly applied sealant or wax, were as a layer tends to describe a thicker covering.
Some specialty paint protection (Silica Coatings) systems can have subsequent film added to increase protection and paint appearance, systems must set-up or cross-link prior to application of subsequent coats. Depending on the product type (polymer sealant or Carnauba wax) times vary from a few hours to days.
Most solvents will strip subsequent layers, but remember that you are not applying neat solvent to the last layer; but a wax / solvent emulsion. It’s a diluted form of its original strength and won't strip the wax layer like neat solvent. If you apply a low-solvent product (Victoria Concours Wax) on top of one that has already set-up (i.e. the solvents have evaporated) you can increase its density (up to a point) two to three applications are usually considered optimum
One thing that will negate the applied product density is lack of clarity, the base coat (that contains the vehicle’s colour) is covered / protected by a clear coat of urethane paint, which as well as providing protection is clear to enable the paint colour to show through and provide the colour with depth.
Any product applied on top of the clear coat needs to be optically clear (transparent) otherwise both the paint colour and its depth of shine will be muted. One of the problems with ‘layering’ some waxes and polymers is that they tend to occlude (become less opaque) as the thickness increases
The viscosity of the previous layer requires more solvent to significantly melt away than the next applied wax layer can contain The carrier system allows the product to fill and level the paint film surface to produce a flat surface (this flat level surface is more pronounced with polymers due to their
Covalent (molecular) alignment characteristics). This level surface optimises the paint film surface's desired optical properties (i.e. surface reflectance, clarity, gloss, and depth of shine)
Another ‘layering’ technique- apply a liquid Carnauba wax (liquid wax usually contains polymer and solvents) and allow to set-up (usually 1-2 hours, do a smear test to endure that its dry.
Then a apply to a paste Carnauba wax; allow the solvents to evaporate for 2-4 hours, and finally buff surface with a 100% cotton towel to produce jetting (a ‘wet-look’ shine) Swisswax
Application of wax with Bare Hands
By using the warmth of the hands to spread and massage in a very thin coating of wax. Applying to small sections and massaging in the wax started the bonding process quicker with an instant layer of protection, the bare hands acted as the first catalysis of bonding to the surface, and eventually to a full curing by exposure to the air.
'Spit Shining’ (Bull polishing)
[Spit shining is the technique that is used to make shoes shine like mirrors - - and some of those tricks can be applied to putting carnauba on your car's paint] NickT
It’s not as lurid as it sounds, I learned how to spit shine boots in the Royal Air Force (RAF), but for those of you who’ve never done it I’ll briefly describe how to spit shine boots to a mirror finish.
You’ll need a can of Kiwi shoe wax, a bag of cotton balls, and some cold water. Wet the cotton ball and squeeze out most of the water. Get a very small amount of wax on the cotton ball and wipe it onto the boot - continue wiping until there is no more smudging. Add a little more wax and repeat.
Re-moisten the cotton ball as needed so that it leaves tiny beads of water on the boots. When the cotton ball retains too much wax, then use a new cotton ball, it takes several layers (maybe 6 to 10 or more) to achieve that mirror shine. It’s obvious that the wax builds layers because enough flexing of the leather will cause the wax to flake.
Spit shining is used for ‘layering’
Organic wax (although in this case the 'spit' used is cold distilled water) to produce a ‘depth of shine’ providing you take the necessary precautions to prevent the solvents both re-liquefying and removing the previous wax layers.
What you are doing is dissolving the solvents so that it doesn't remove the previous layer. One of the very important nuances of layering is to use very little applied pressure and friction when applying subsequent layers as they will have a negative impact on wax thickness Usually a spit shined surface is slicker, smoother, and has different beading characteristics; with even smaller tighter water beads. The durability is about the same (or slightly better) and although spit shining is very time consuming, the improved depth of shine and glossy appearance is worth it
Usually, a wax with a high solvent content will remove the previous layer, so use a Carnauba that is not formulated with a high solvent content (Pinnacle Souverän) A solvent will have the potential to strip subsequent layers, but remember that you are not applying neat solvent to the last layer - but a wax and solvent blend. So it is only a fraction of its original strength and won't strip the wax layer like neat solvent. One of the very important nuances of layering is to use very little applied pressure and friction when applying subsequent layers as they will have a negative impact on wax thickness
Using a damp applicator and cold (almost ice) distilled water in a fine mist spray bottle neutralizes any solvents in the newly applied layer; the water should be cold, using ice cold water after applying a wax will harden the wax quicker making the shine deeper and help the new wax adhere to the finish, working until the water/ wax solution disappears. The reason for using a damp applicator is to neutralize the solvents as much as possible, and to avoid the thin coats of wax sticking to the applicator, this enables the wax to build thin, fine coats. Spray fine mists of cold (almost ice) distilled water to a single panel and then apply a light Carnauba wax to the paint surface.
Always apply extremely thin layers using a very light pressure when spit shining, Wipe it onto a small work area and continue wiping until most of the wax disappears. Mist lightly as needed, keeping a few water droplets on the surface. Move to the next work area and repeat. After you do the final area you’ll have a surface with many spots of hazed wax. Lightly mist an area with the very cold distilled water - 1/2 hood or door - and lightly buff with a MF towel. Turn the towel frequently, when the towel becomes too damp switch to a new towel.
When you spray very cold water on a Carnauba wax layer that has been allowed to outgas (i.e. the solvents that make up its carrier system have evaporated) it reduces the wax surface temperature to the point that the next applied waxes carrier solvents do not dilute the previously applied wax and it forms a semi-hard coat.
Allow each subsequent Carnauba waxes solvents to outgas before applying more layers. Spit shining allows definitive layers, as opposed to a thick coat of wax that would result if the solvents dissolve the wax layer that they are applied to.
After 24 hours you can repeat the procedure, using cold (almost ice) distilled water and Pinnacle Crystal Mist (a low solvent quick detail (QD) each coat applied will increase the surface depth of shine with five or six coats being optimal
Information resource- based on information in a post by NickT on Autopia.org and the original method used to shine RAF uniform dress shoes (See also “Wax layers” Detailing World forum)
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