Sunday, 19 July 2015

Odour Elimination

It amazes me that even professionals still think they can eliminate odours by shampooing the interior, and spraying a deodorizer. Nothing is farther from the truth, technically, an odour is an invisible gas, and so it can permeate any material or crevice. Many odours are caused by micro-organisms such as bacteria, mould, and mildew. Not only does shampooing not eradicate these odours, it spreads them over a much wider area

You eliminate odour-causing organisms with very specialized chemicals. Look for stains, if there are no stains, use the process of elimination; it is very effective when searching for the source of an odour; floor or seats (including foam underneath) mats or carpet? If the vehicle has velour upholstery, a spill can penetrate on contact. If it is vinyl or leather, it will run to the deepest seam. Pay special attention to the headliner and all glass surfaces (especially true of smoke odour)

The most important aspect of removing as opposed to using a product that will cover it, only for the odour to return later on,  or at the very least mitigating an offensive door is that you must find and remove its origin. Don’t be fooled by the claims of odour removal products; if it doesn’t have a cleaning agent in it, you’re not going to get rid of the odour.

If you thoroughly clean the interior and it still smells you have not removed the source that is generating the smell. You can use an ozone machine, steam / extractor, scrub, and vacuum etc but if you do not remove the origin the smell will remain. Replace the cabin air filter (if fitted) as it will retain the smoke micro-organisms

Identify its source

Most odours are caused by bacteria and unless you are able to neutralise the bacteria that is causing the odour it will continue to smell.
Without identifying and eliminating the source of the odour / mould you can't get rid of it, there are many products that mask odours; what you need to do is remove and clean and thoroughly dry the whole area; carpets (inc rubber backing), upholstery (inc foam and etc) that is affected, including the headliner and metal floor pan (don’t forget to clean/replace the cabin air filter). 

Selecting a Treatment
Some odours can be eliminated with just one of the following techniques. Others require multiple procedures.

·         Oxidation- products that have the ability to bleach are also effective deodorizers. Ozone, hydrogen peroxide, and household bleach are very effective in eliminating odours caused by organic decomposition and skunks.
·         Biocides - products that kill or inhibit the growth of micro organisms, such as mould, mildew and urine.
·         Counteractants - complex odours, such as tobacco smoke and fire residue, respond well to a series of odour counteraction procedures. These may be using an aerosol, odour bomb or a professional thermal fogging.
·         Enzymes – are used to break down organic material, enzymes are proteins naturally produced by all living organisms.
Chlorine dioxide (ClO2)
A chemical compound with the formula ClO2 that vaporizes, removing odours through oxidation, eliminating the bacteria and fungi that cause odours.  A powerful and safe antimicrobial vapour penetrates deeply into any materials removing dangerous pathogens, safely and effectively, eliminating bacteria, mould, mildew and chemical compounds that contaminate and cause odours.

Dog Odour Removal

To eliminate dog odour; vacuum and then use Griot’s Garage Ultimate Carpet & Cloth Brush –to remove dog hairs, the "V" shaped bristles are made out of Caoutchouc, an elastic latex sap from Hevea and Ficus trees. The sap is vulcanized and moulded in a "V" shape giving each bristle a larger surface area to trap dirt and debris. It extracts fine particles like dust, sand, dirt and pet hair much better than traditional bristles.

Great on tightly woven fabric or textured surfaces like carpet and floor mats. The brush also features a 5" squeegee on one side for fast removal of snow or water on glass. The comfortable handle rotates and locks in four positions every 90° for increased leverage and easy use in tight areas.

The brush head is 7" wide x 1 3/4" deep with 1 1/4" long "V" bristles. Thoroughly vacuum and then clean the seating surfaces and carpet to remove body oils, this is where most dog odour emanates from. Dogs that have serious tick or flea problems sometimes develop an unpleasant smell on their skin. Use a repellent, shampoo, or powder for tick and flea control. Use Arm &Hammer Pet Fresh sprayed on the carpeting to eliminate odours.

When you're washing the dog blanket you use to protect t vehicles seating, add a little baking soda to the laundry powder, to remove the smell more effectively. Some white vinegar in the rinse water also work great.

Cabin Air Filter

We all know the problem. The fans blow in everything that belongs outside; gaseous pollutants like ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, hydrocarbons, as well as dust, soot and pollen all have free access to the vehicle.

Cabin filters, on the other hand, clean the incoming airflow before they reach the vehicle's interior, thus guaranteeing healthy fresh air
Cabin air filters first appeared back in the mid-1980s on Audi and other European makes. Today, about 80 percent of all new import and domestic vehicles have a cabin air filter.

They absorb up to 100% of all pollen, dust particles and harmful substances. This results in a noticeable improvement in the air quality inside the vehicle. Cabin filters are generally found in one of three locations: under the hood, inside the glove box or under the dashboard.
The filter can trap pollen, dust, smoke and other pollutants that would otherwise enter the vehicle through the outside vents causing allergy and discomfort due to undesirable smells.

Maintenance – remove filter and brush lightly with a soft brush in-between the folds and then use a light spray of Ozium® air sanitizer  

The recommended replacement interval for a cabin air filter depends on the type of filter being replaced. (Carbon or paper) and the cabins filter exposure to the environment and mileage driven.

Most vehicle manufacturers do recommend replacing a paper or carbon activated filter once a year or every 10,000 to 12,000 miles to keep the cabin filter working at its highest efficiency. Check vehicle owner’s manual for location

Activated charcoal cabin filters. These filters have an extra layer of activated carbon that reacts with odours and other airborne pollutants to neutralize them before they enter the vehicle.

The charcoal activated filters will also reduce the levels of CO2 (carbon monoxide) and NO2 (oxides of nitrogen) from the emissions of other vehicles on the road.

Bosch Cabin Filters and Charcoal activated filters absorb up to 100% of all pollen, dust particles and harmful substances. Cabin Filter recommended replacement is every 12,000 to 15,000 miles, or once a year will keep the cabin filter working at its highest efficiency -


Its molecules are microscopic and they exhibit a very strong adhesive quality; plus they don't conform to normal cleaning standards. It is these micro particulates that embed themselves in the fibres of the headliner, seats and carpet. These are particles of incomplete combustion with a size of 0.1 to 4µ; the average human hair is between 40 – 600 µ; whereas the average smoke particle is 150 times smaller.
A solvent will not break their bond; a detergent will not suspend them for extraction. More than any other dour problem smoke removal is a process. You cannot eliminate odours by shampooing the interior, and/or spraying a deodorizer. Many odours are caused by micro-organisms such as bacteria, mould, and mildew.

·         Make up and aqueous solution Optimum Opti™ - Clean concentrate diluted ith1:3 with distilled water in a spray bottle
·         Spray liberally on inside glass surfaces and wipe clean with an OPT Foam Wash Mitt or a plush microfiber towel. Fold and use a new section of the towel as needed.

·         Follow up with a glass surface cleaner (Invisible Glass)
·         Clean the headliner as this will ‘hold’ tar deposits and smoke molecules
·         Apply DrivePur Smok (see “Allergen, Odour and Germ removal Systems” )

Smoke Damage
Soot is oily and easily stains, dependent upon the amount of damage it may well be more cost effective to replace the headliner and carpets.
You should begin by air out the entire interior. The airing process will be more effective if you place fan(s) inside the vehicle and open all the windows so the fan can blow towards the open windows.

All surfaces should be thoroughly cleaned and an odour elimination product (DrivePur) Smok used, this is a Counteractants chemical that break up smoke molecules to eliminate odours. Keep in mind that most household deodorizing sprays and disinfectants provide only temporary relief. In addition, deodorizing sprays may interact with smoke odour and create an additional odour.
1.        Vacuum all hard and soft surfaces to remove any loose hydrocarbon (soot) debris

2.        Steam-clean all upholstered surfaces. Make sure you use a steam cleaner with an attachment, so you can be sure to get into all the small areas of the car. You may want to repeat this process more than once. Consider using a stain removing chemical along with the cleaning solution if you have soot stains from the smoke.

3.        DrivePur Klenz- is a Carpet and   Upholstery Cleaner comprised of non-ionic surfactants and a water hardness modifier to create a powerful micelle cleaning action that can tolerate tremendous soil loads. Klenz penetrates and lifts hydrocarbon soils, including fats, oils, greases, proteins and sugars without damaging carpeting fibres or upholstery fabrics
4.        Clean all hard surfaces with using Iz einszett 'Plastik-Reiniger' an intensive, non-corrosive, non-acidic two-phase deep cleaner for that removes grime build-up thoroughly and effortlessly, these chemicals restore the original texture, tactile feel and resiliency
   DrivePur Smok- is very effective at eliminating cigarette and other odours. It has the ability to penetrate, seek out and react with the components of tobacco smoke (tar and nicotine) dissolving and converting them into gaseous molecules without causing any damage to fabrics, materials or hard surfaces.
6.        Thoroughly clean all glass surfaces by applying Stoners Invisible Glass ™ to the micro fibre glass cleaning (very low nap) towel and rub glass surface with a light to medium pressure (it will dry streak-free / lint-free) Be sure to roll down your windows about half way so you can clean the top edges of the glass.
DrivePur Prevnt - uses Ultraviolet Photocatalic Oxidation (UV-PCO) that will continue to keep odors germs and bacteria out of the vehicle for up to 6 months. A smoker can continue to smoke in the car - within 15 minutes the new odours are broken down. Once treated the vehicle needs UV radiation (sunlight) airflow and humidity to break down the contaminants.

Many odours are caused by micro-organisms such as bacteria, mould, and mildew. First start by cleaning all the interior surfaces; but remember shampooing alone will not eradicate these odours. You eliminate dour-causing organisms with very specialized chemicals.

Use an enzyme cleaner (Original Sporiclean) dampen a clean micro fibre towel Wipe down the cushion, from the centre of the spot outward. Turn the cloth often, and rinse and re-moisten when it shows any soil. It depends on how liquid the puke was; with liquid it’s difficult it is to eradicate the smell completely.
The foam or other stuffing may have soaked up stomach acid and may require that you inject an enzyme cleaner, however if this does not remove the odour foam replacement may be necessary

Hypodermic Injector
Mildew spores will permeate seating foam and carpet padding;  a way to destroy those lingering odours and fungus that are impossible to reach, this device will inject any liquid odour counteracting agent or disinfectant deep into upholstery foam or carpet padding. TOTL


Some Counteractants are simply a chemical that is used to cover up the odour by counteracting it with a stronger smell

Odour Neutralizer / Deodorizing

Many odours are caused by micro-organisms such as bacteria, mould, and mildew. First start by cleaning all the interior surfaces; but remember shampooing alone will not eradicate these odours. You eliminate dour-causing organisms with very specialized chemicals.
Look for stains, if there are no stains, use the process of elimination; it is very effective when searching for the source of an odour; floor or seats, mats or carpet? If the vehicle has velour upholstery, a spill can penetrate on contact. If it is vinyl or leather, it will run to the deepest seam and permeate via the stitching. Pay special attention to the headliner and all glass surfaces. Check and / or replace the cabin air filter as they will retain odours

a) Aquartz - So2Pure (CleanAir), Titanium dioxide or titania ( TiO2) a photo catalyst treatment is not a perfume cover-up type product; but an advanced high grade air purification coating based on the latest nano-science technology, and possibly the most effective treatment for odours thus far. In the presence of light, active oxygen is formed and excited on the treated surfaces to destroy all micro-sized air pollutants, including petro fumes, smog, diesel smoke, exhaust gases, industrial smoke, chemical off-gassing or volatile organic compounds (VOC) from car fabric, leather and plastic materials, air toxins, cigarette odours, etc.

b) PŪRWorld is a spray application deodorizing product (not a cover-up sent); hydroxyl radicals are among the strongest oxidizing species, even much stronger than chlorine, ozone, and peroxide. They act as very powerful disinfecting agents by oxidizing the cells of microorganisms, causing rupture and leakage of vital composition.
They accelerate the breakdown by destroying the molecular bonds. This will help combine the organic gases to form a single molecule that is not harmful to humans thus enhance the air cleaning efficiency. 

Symptom that occurs from prolonged exposure to microbes that grow in automobile interiors, the presence of the microbes causes similar reactions as sick building syndrome. Some of the examples of odour molecules are: tobacco odour, formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide, urine odour, gasoline, and many other hydrocarbon molecules in the atmosphere.

Generally speaking, disinfectants by titanium oxides are three times stronger than chlorination, and 1.5 times stronger than ozone treatment. PŪRWorld provides photo catalyst surface coating for long-lasting effects of deodorization, sterilization, and anti-soiling purposes. Using specialized spray-coating equipments, a fine mist of photo catalyst can be applied on different types of surface material that guarantees the maximum result. DrivePur Protection Systems

I would suggest you contact DrivePur for the name of a local distributor / detailer as specialized equipment is required to treat an interior properly as in your case its not just getting rid of a few odours or smoke residue

PurWorld Technologies, Inc.
6841 Virginia Parkway.
Suite 103-456
McKinney, TX 75071

Tel. 888-584-9997

c) Biocide Systems - Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2) is a potent oxidizer that literally uses oxygen to break up odour molecules. This sort of oxidizing action is found in many chemicals, but ClO2 is one of the most effective. ClO2 gas is especially good at oxidizing organic odour-causing substances, including Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC). It does not mask them like perfumes do, it neutralizes them through oxidation and is very effective – Biocide Systems

d) Ozium® air sanitizer - does not cover up the odours associated with pets, cooking and smoking. The original air purifier is a chemical agent that actually eliminates smoke and unpleasant odours and reduces airborne bacteria. It actually cleanses the air through glycolized action. The glycolized formula acts directly on odour causing particles in the air. Ozium is an EPA registered air sanitizer and is safe to use residentially or commercially in homes, rental property, hospitals, nursing homes, hotels, veterinary clinics, restaurants, bars, laundry rooms, cars, mobile homes, offices, and just about anywhere there might be an odour problem.

Application method- spray product onto cleaned surfaces, turn the AC to recirculation mode, spray return air ducts (clean or change cabin air filter) allow to run for approx 5 minutes, allow the deodorizer to permeate the various surfaces for about an hour before using the vehicle.

Air Conditioner cleaning

Legionnaire’s disease is rare but it kills people and it's an extremely unpleasant disease. It does not spread from person to person but is present in water environments and is breathed in when it gets into the air in fine particles or mist. This is a bug which lives in the environment and will take advantage of any static warm water systems that are not cleaned out.

[Every time you use your air conditioner, you are providing an opportunity for odor causing mould, mildew and bacteria to grow within your air conditioning system. To explain how this happens we must understand how the air conditioner system works. Here’s a basic explanation. When the air conditioner is on, it pulls moisture out of your car’s interior through a unit called the evaporator core, which is located underneath your car’s dashboard. When the humidity (moisture) levels drop, the air temperature also drops. The moisture that is pulled from the air condenses and is drained outside the car.
Ever notice a pool of water under your parked car on a hot summer day? That’s the water that was drained from the system. This also happens to be the way home air conditioners and refrigerators work.

Even though most of the moisture is drained from the car, moisture still remains on the evaporator core system. As the air circulates around the evaporator core, dust and pollen in the air stick to the moisture on the metal fins of the evaporator. Soon thereafter mildew and bacteria begin to grow on the surface of the evaporator. This collection of grime and odour causing agents begin to release odour and is the cause of the smell coming out of your vents.

One way to help prevent or at least reduce this issue is to keep the air conditioner on the fresh air setting. This keeps fresh air circulating around the evaporator which helps keep it and the surrounding area dry thereby reducing the chance of any mould, mildew and bacteria from growing. However, there are two disadvantages to this method. First, it’s also not always convenient to switch to the fresh air setting in order to draw in hotter air to dry out the system. It just might be too hot or cold to be worth this extra effort. It’s also not economical.

Second, allowing fresh air to flow in increases the accumulation of dust, pollen and brake dust build up. Of course if you have a cabin air filter you don’t have to worry about that since it will trap the pollutants before it reaches the evaporator area.

Another possible solution is to spray a disinfectant like Lysol® into the ventilation system or have your car treated with ozone or other similar system. However, this process does not affect any dust, pollen and other contaminants that have accumulated on the evaporator. While it may disinfect any mould, mildew and bacteria, the results are usually short term.] Clearing the Air, by Michael Mankarious

Always check the following; a/c condensate pan and drain pipe smells and odours, for ac odours use 1z Klima-Cleaner Air Conditioning Cleaner or Wurth A/C & Heating System Cleaner, an effective means for removing odour-causing bacteria, smoke fumes, fungi and other germs.

It effectively disinfects mould, mildew and bacteria on the evaporator core. It also applies a thin layer of protectant that has been proven in laboratory tests which makes the growth of contaminants more difficult so the results are long lasting. The effective foam solution emulsifies the debris build up on the evaporator core so it’s cleaner and will run more efficiently.

·         Turn off ignition, air conditioning and fan system and adjust fan position to DIRECT and make sure it is NOT on the 'foot' or 'defrost' position.
·         Shake can well for one minute to ensure proper foaming of product when dispensed.
·         Attach the supplied spray tube to aerosol can and insert end of tube into centre (as this is the closest the evaporator core) air conditioner vent located on the dash in the cockpit interior.
·         With tube fully inserted in vent, press trigger to dispense contents.
·         DO NOT invert can when dispensing. As you spray, the thick foam solution will travel through the air vents towards the evaporator (the source of odour causing elements). 
·         After dispensing product, wait 20 minutes for product to clean the system. Then, open doors to allow fresh air to enter vehicle.
·         Turn on fan to maximum setting with A/C setting in ON for approximately 1 minute to dry system. as a result of improper application

Option 1: Apply Klima-Cleaner tube through the evacuation/drain tube of the evaporator core located underneath the vehicle.

Option 2: Remove blower and insert tube through main ducting of housing.

Another significant benefit is the result of cleaner interior air. This is especially important for allergy sufferers who are sensitive to airborne contaminants. For those who are highly sensitive to chemicals, rest assured that Klima-Cleaner is a water- and salt-based cleaner so chances of any skin reaction is extremely minimal.

Tip- turn off the AC but leave the fan running for the last minute or two before turning off the ignition to help dry the condenser and surrounding area. Change cabin air filter

The EVAPOmat® atomises cleaning and odour eliminating active substances with the aid of three ultrasonic cells. The active substance mist is blown out of the EVAPOmat® by a fan. The fine vapour is distributed in the entire ventilation duct or in the vehicle interior by the supplied application hose and is deposited on the evaporator surface or on the textiles and reliably eliminates unpleasant odours caused by bacteria and fungi. After approx. 15 min. the mist spray is switched off, however the fan continues to run for at least another 5 minutes to cool down the cells.

Baking soda

(Sodium bicarbonate / sodium hydrogen carbonate)
Will get rid of some odours; this takes time because what you want to do is dust the seats and the carpets (after they’ve been shampooed), and leave the baking soda to settle for a day or so. That will give it time to absorb some of the odour and moisture around it. Then, vacuum it up and repeat the process a few more times over the course of a week.

Skunk (the animal)

Skunks have two glands, one on each side of the anus. These glands produce a mixture of sulphur-containing chemicals containing sulfhydryl, a mixture of methyl and butyl thiols traditionally called mercaptans, which are not water soluble and have a highly offensive smell that can be described as a combination of the odours of rotten eggs, garlic and burnt rubber.
Due to the chemical composition of the skunk spray, most household remedies are ineffective, with the exception of a peroxide formula or other remedies that break down the thiols.

         FWIW- washing the car with a tomato sauce to rid the smell of skunk is a myth, but boy does it amuse the neighbours
Exterior - To eliminate them and the odours they produce solubilise it (i.e. raise the pH from an acid to an alkaline) with an alkaline wash solution at which point it will become more soluble and wash away. Mix a 1/4 cup baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) with an alkaline car wash concentrate or acid neutralization wash -ValuGuard

Interior - To safely and effectively remove skunk odours (Skunk Kleen) an odour neutralizer that can be sprayed directly on you or your pet as well as in the air, in your vehicle, on clothing, fabric, bedding, litter, cages, kennels, carpeting, flooring, and porous surfaces to eliminate skunk odour’s. With all odour removal change the cabin air filter (if fitted) after treatment.

Natural Charcoal

Will absorb many of the odours found inside the vehicle (petrol / diesel fumes, etc) see also Baking Soda

 For odour from the air conditioning unit

1z Klima-Cleaner Air Conditioning Cleaner- is an effective means for removing odour-causing bacteria, fungi and other germs. Spray into the interior A/C vents and allow product to work for 30 minutes. It creates a healthier and fresh smelling environment for the interior of your car, change cabin air filter Tip- turn off the AC but leave the fan running for the last minute or two before turning off the ignition to help dry the condenser and surrounding area. To maintain results treat the system at least twice a year. Also check the cabin air filter, and change as necessary 

For stubborn odours - the evaporator core surface is where water condensation accumulates and where the odour usually originates. Spray the evaporator core thoroughly with Lysol® no-rinse sanitizer. Remove fan motor and thoroughly clean the fan blades and the fan housing. Replace the cabin micro air filter with an activated charcoal version. Ensure that the evaporator drain is not blocked.

A/C Evaporator Core Treatment – does not just deodorize, but really cleans the evaporator of dust, bacteria, fungus, and unpleasant odour, no special flushing required after cleaning treatment. Prevents odour recurrence for a prolonged period and improves the cooling effect of the A/C system#

Ozone Generators

[: Ozone (03) is Oxygen (02) with an extra molecule]

[Ozone is a molecule composed of three atoms of oxygen. Two atoms of oxygen form the basic oxygen molecule--the oxygen we breathe that is essential to life. The third oxygen atom can detach from the ozone molecule, and re-attach to molecules of other substances, thereby altering their chemical composition. It is this ability to react with other substances that forms the basis of manufacturers’ claims
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
It is therefore a highly effective and powerful oxidation agent. When generated and applied to treat an area, the ozone releases its spare molecule to oxidize (destroy) micro-organisms in air or water

[Pure ozone is a highly toxic and extremely reactive gas. A higher daily average than 0.1 ppm (0.2 mg/m³) is not recommended and can damage the lungs and olfactory bulb cells directly] [1]

Ozone is a toxic gas with vastly different chemical and toxicological properties from oxygen. Several federal agencies have established health standards or recommendations to limit human exposure to ozone. There is evidence to show that at concentrations that do not exceed public health standards, ozone is not effective at removing many odour-causing chemicals. Ozone applied to indoor air does not effectively remove viruses, bacteria, mould, or other biological pollutants.

Hydrogen Peroxide is formed when ozone dissolves in water. And this is what happens when it comes into contact with moisture in your eyes, nose and lungs. Ozone can also perish rubber and some plastics. Water (H2O) and Ozone (03) react to create Oxygen (02) and together form Peroxide (H2O2) which will bleach materials it comes in contact with.

Ozone generators are really simple technology, "corona discharge" basically a plate of glass with metal mesh on both sides but not touching, the mesh is connected to a 7500-15000V transformer and that creates ozone.

Typical ozone output for a vehicle is about 400-1100 mg/hr, at these concentrations it should only take 1/2 hour to remove odours and another 1-2 hours to air the car out so as to not cause harm to yourself or the client.

When running (usually 10-15 minutes, dependent upon machine output) an ozone machine, close all windows and doors and ensure that the AC controls are set to the recirculation setting, thus ensuring the AC unit will also be treated. Once the ozone treatment is completed thoroughly ventilate the vehicle interior, the smell will dissipate rapidly once doors and windows are opened. Open all doors and let the residual Ozone dissipate before re-entering vehicle.

Caution:  Do not breathe in any appreciable amount of the ozone or you'll get a really bad headache.

Other Resources-
1.        Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
2.        Faculty of Chemical Technology
3.        Glossary of chemical terms, American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA)


Ionisers should not be confused with ozone generators, even though both devices operate in a similar way. Ionisers use electrostatically charged plates to produce positively or negatively charged gas ions that particulate matter sticks to (in an effect similar to static electricity).
Ozone generators are optimised to attract an extra oxygen ion to an O2 molecule, using either a corona discharge tube or UV light. Even the best ionisers will produce a small amount of ozone, and ozone generators will produce gaseous ions of molecules other than ozone (unless fed by pure oxygen, not air)

Hypodermic Injector

Finally, a way to destroy those lingering odours that are impossible to reach, this device will inject any liquid odour counteracting agent or disinfectant deep into upholstery foam or carpet padding. TOTL

Odour Bombs

Single-use odour removal foggers (bombs), a remarkable tobacco odour counteract ant, an odour eliminator designed just for heat and air ventilation systems.
Fogging blankets microscopic pores in carpet, velour, leather and vinyl. It reaches deep into ventilation systems, making it especially effective against tobacco smoke residue. Aerosol foggers are used just like your household insect bombs, and are the most effective form of odour removal -TOTL.

Always be willing to learn; because the more you learn, the more you’ll realize what you don’t know. It is said that knowledge is power, with the caveat that it includes access to a reliable information sources. I would like to think that these articles become an asset to anyone who is new to detailing and to professional’s alike, as well as industry experts who seek to advance their knowledge.

I hope these articles are informative. They are based on the current status of technical development as well as my experience with the products.
By having some understanding of the ‘What’ and ‘Why’ as well as the ‘How’ along with a little science to help you understand how the chemicals we use react, you can achieve the results you desire.

I would appreciate it if you would share these articles as it helps other detailers further their knowledge.

As always if you have questions, I’ll do my best to answer; bear in mind the only stupid questions is the one that was unasked. Questions and/ or constructive comments are always appreciated

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